First Post

Posted 6 years ago

Customary first post. This is sort of like smacking the side of my yacht with a champagne bottle, or cutting a ribbon on the neighborhood grocery store, or making that first dig. But it takes more than a shovel to build a town hall. So I think I'll stick to building shacks, or dinghy's.

I look forward to covering weird programming things I discover during my day to day, hot button issues on tech, only the most white-hot startups, and all the video game excess I can squeeze in. We'll see how this goes.

 Now I just sit back and wait for the inspiration to hit.

About the author

Dev/Code/Hack is a technology and business blog by me, Par Trivedi. I'm a software engineer and I've been writing code and managing teams for over a decade. This blog serves as a way to share thoughts and ideas about the tech/startup community, and also to educate newcomers to software development.

331 Comments

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    faith alice Yesterday   Reply

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    william christopher 2 days ago   Reply

  • How Much Money Do You Make Programming? Posted 4 years ago I'll get right to the point. About $100,000 a year. That's the answer if you have been programming for 4+ years and work in a major tech hub like the Bay area or NYC. Of course your mileage WILL vary. Your salary is dependent on your skill level, your experience and your negotiating power. Most programmers will make between $40,000 and $120,000. Junior prgrammers, or people starting out in smaller cities can expect to make around $30,000-$50,000. Most average programmers are bringing in around $60,000-$85,000 a year. Senior programmers will typically reach $100,000. And highly valued senior programmers can easily make $120,000-$150,000+. Some programmers are even granted stock options or stock units in the company they work for. The first engineering hire for a startup can get up to 5% of the company, and if the startup does well that can turn into millions. Try my newest app, Job Bytes for iOS. Your cheat sheet to the programming interview! Free, check it out now. Programming can make you some solid dough, that is for sure. But not every programmer is making six figures, and I don't personally know any programmers who have made millions. In small towns even good programmers might not make six figures. The salaries can vary wildly depending on what city you are in. But I have worked in Austin, TX, New York City and the Bay area, and I can tell you salaries in those three places are very similar. And from what you can see on websites like Glassdoor, most mid-level programmers are netting between 60k-100k. Of course it's not just about how well you code, it's about what language you are using. To maintain market salary, it is important to stay up to date with programming languages. Languages change fast, and in our industry you will go through 5-10 languages in your career. If you do not keep up with it, someone new will come in to fill your shoes. Story time. In high school I had a computer science teacher named Mr. Evans, and he would always tell us stories about 'being in the industry'. Mr. Evans said that they will hire you for Fortran, keep you around till you are 40, then fire you. He said Fortran was the greatest language invented and everything that came after it sucked. But when we'd get home from school we would play with C++ and Visual Basic, two of the most popular languages at that time. If Mr. Evans would have learned C++ or VB, he probably could have gotten a better job, but instead he was stuck teaching high school kids. Poor Mr. Evans was definitely not making 100k. So you see, there is good money you can make programming. It can be challenging to learn how to program, but once you do it is very rewarding. You won't get paid like a doctor, lawyer or banker, but you (usually) won't be expected to work insane hours, defend murderers or swindle people for money. And sometimes there is even free lunch! Check out my #1 post: Which Programming Language Should You Learn To Make Money? Tweet Tags: About the author Dev/Code/Hack is a technology and business blog by me, Par Trivedi. I'm a software engineer and I've been writing code and managing teams for over a decade. This blog serves as a way to share thoughts and ideas about the tech/startup community, and also to educate newcomers to software development. Follow @Parito 133 Comments Your name Your comment WP:RECORDS "WP:RECORDS" redirects here. For WikiProject Record Charts, see WP:RECORD. WikiStats P cartesian graph.svg Main General info Status statistics WikiStats project WikiProject edit counters General statistics Awareness Editors Total size Size comparisons Growth Records Zipf's law comparison Breakdowns Editors by number of edits Editors by article count Time between edits Administrator actions v t e This is a page detailing various records of Wikipedia. Some of them may never be fully known, but it's worth listing the ones we know. Please fill in the gaps, and add your own records (as long as they are sensible)! Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Articles 3 Views 3.1 Cumulative views 3.2 Single-day views 4 Edits 5 Titles 5.1 Article with longest title 5.2 Article with shortest title 6 Links 7 Disambiguation pages 8 Consensus participation 9 Languages 10 Pictures 11 Deletion 12 Categories and templates 13 Numbers 14 High-use pages 15 Database reports 16 See also 17 References Beginnings See also: Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles, Wikipedia:2001 First page: HomePage created on 15 January 2001 First edit: HomePage on 15 January 2001 First named user: January 17: First known named user: User:ScottMoonen[1] First featured article: TheCanonofScripture, MathematicalGrouP, and NewZealand, tied on 23:53, January 21, 2001. However, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was first to be featured on the main page, on February 22, 2004 First Did You Know: Pencil sharpener, posted on February 22, 2004 (created by User:Raul654 on February 15, 2004) First Picture of the Day: Virgin River Narrows, Friday May 14, 2004[2] The English-language Wikipedia's first picture of the day The Virgin River Narrows in Zion National Park, located near Springdale, Utah, is a 16-mile long slot canyon along the Virgin River. Recently rated as number five out of National Geographic's Top 100 American Adventures, it is one of the most rewarding hikes in the world. Photo credit: Jon Sullivan, pdphoto.org Articles Oldest surviving edit (older edits have existed, but have since been lost because of the way UseModWiki worked): UuU (20:08 UTC, 16 January 2001) Longest article: List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation ?(867,401 bytes as of 29 March 2018) Longest article that is not a list: 2016–17 Coupe de France Preliminary Rounds ?(690,191 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest biography article: Eric Walter Elst (354,626 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest featured article: Barack Obama (337,024 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Shortest featured article: Scene7 (8,210 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Articles with the most references/citations: That is a list: List of Hillary Clinton presidential campaign non-political endorsements, 2016 has 2303 as of 24 February 2018 That is a biography: Joseph Stalin has 872 as of 24 February 2018 That is neither a list nor a biography: Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) has 997 as of 24 February 2018 Most references for one sentence: 172 in 21 May 2010 version of Educology. Most hatnotes for one article: 13 October 2017 version of Music recording sales certification. Longest time an article had no references: Reign. Unreferenced from 19 January 2003? to 9 April 2017. Largest article talk page including archives: Talk:Intelligent design (18.8 MB as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a main namespace talk page: Talk:Jesus (131 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace talk page: Wikipedia talk:Requests for adminship (249 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace non-talk page: Wikipedia:Administrators' noticeboard/Incidents (977 as of 24 February 2018) Most successful FA nominations: 169 by Wehwalt (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by featured article nominations) Most DYK (Did You Know?) articles: 1666 by Dr. Blofeld (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by number of DYKs) Views The most viewed pages of Wikipedia's initial years (2001–2007) remain unknown, though the multiyear ranking of most viewed pages gives views for top-100 pages since 2007. In addition, http://stats.grok.se/ gives statistics for specific months in the same years. Cumulative views The most visited pages are the Main Page, followed by Special:Search and Special:Random. The most visited articles (non-special pages) are Wiki, followed by Facebook and then YouTube. However, the consistent popularity of these articles is due in part to people accidentally typing these site names/URLs into a Wikipedia search box (either in the MediaWiki interface or a web browser) when intending to actually visit the sites themselves.[3] The most visited articles that are not about a website are United States, followed by Donald Trump and then Barack Obama.[4] The most visited articles that are neither about a website nor pertaining specifically to the United States are India, followed by World War II and then Michael Jackson.[5] Single-day views The most visited page on a single day is always the Main Page, averaging over 23 million views per day as of 2016, far more views than any other page. The most visited article (non-special page) on a single day is Steve Jobs, which had 7.4 million views on 6 October 2011 and 1.6 million on 7 October.[6] The previous record was Michael Jackson, which had 5.9 million views on 26 June 2009.[7] In both cases, the record views were set one day after the subjects' deaths. The most visited article on a single day that was not just after the subject's death is Donald Trump, which had 6.1 million views on November 9, 2016, the day after he was elected President of the United States.[8] Edits Most edited article:[9] in any namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Main Article namespace: List of WWE personnel (48,027 edits as of 29 March 2018; see Special:MostRevisions) in Talk namespace: Talk:Main Page (140,152 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User namespace: User:Cyde/List of candidates for speedy deletion/Subpage (868,556 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User Talk namespace: User talk:Jimbo Wales (145,953 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia talk: Wikipedia talk:Did you know (78,727 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in MediaWiki talk: MediaWiki talk:Spam-blacklist (17,990 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template: Template:AFC statistics (68,248 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template talk: Template talk:Did you know (351,905 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Portal: Portal:Current events/Sports (41,619 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] Article edited by the largest number of users: Article unedited for the longest time: See WP:Database reports/Forgotten articles Article that was stub for longest time: Cannot be determined, because there is no clear definition of how long the text of an article has to be for the article to stop being a stub. Most edits to one article in a single day: 7 July 2005 London bombings (2,857 edits in 24 hours; the article was receiving up to 15 edits per minute at some stages) Most edits by a user (bot): Cydebot has 5,121,263 edits as of 08:13, 16 March 2016 (UTC).[10] Most edits by a user (non-bot): Ser Amantio di Nicolao (1,583,487 edits as of March 15, 2016)[10] Most edits by an IP address: 68.39.174.238 (22,210 edits as of January 27, 2015) Largest single contributing edit (non-bot): revision 747382971 of List of named minor planets (numerical) (+2,024,726), edited by Rfassbind. Largest article at creation date: List of named minor planets (numerical), 2,024,726 bytes Titles Article with longest title See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (technical restrictions) § Title length See the sortable table below for the articles with the longest titles. Note: The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia limits the length of the titles to 255 bytes, thus some titles that would be longer than the ones in the table below are not included. For instance, the full title of When the Pawn... would be 445 bytes. Characters counting spaces Characters excluding spaces Article title 185 155 To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to take certain Federal lands located in El Dorado County, California, into trust for the benefit of the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians 182 182 Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon 180 153 Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders Longest full typed number with an article: 9223372036854775807[11] Article with shortest title A number of Wikipedia articles have single-character titles. There are 36 articles with titles of only one ASCII character in length: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z A further 123 articles have titles of a single Unicode character: À, Ã, È, Ê, Ì, Í, Î, Ï, Ò, Õ, Ú, Û, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? ,? ,?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? Links Page linked to by most other pages: Wikipedia:Sandbox Most linked article in main namespace: IP address Article with most links: Article in most categories: Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, in 286 categories as of 21 February 2018. The 162 top articles are international conventions with a category for each participant. Most categories for a non-convention article: Winston Churchill (131), Nicolae Iorga (122) and Elon Musk (122) Most external links in whole article: Perhaps List of MeSH codes (D02), 2,542 external links, all to the same site (April 25, 2014) Oldest surviving red link: Hammarön from Hammarö Municipality, May 25, 2004 to November 23, 2015 Most linked to image: Information.svg (6,639,021 pages as of 24 February 2018) (see Special:MostLinkedFiles) Disambiguation pages In May 2014 the disambiguation pages with the largest numbers of entries were:[12] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries St. Mary's Church 584 Communist Party (disambiguation) 569 Aliabad 520 The largest with diverse entries:[13] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries Saint Paul (disambiguation) 232 Star (disambiguation) 221 Saint-Pierre 218 Consensus participation 687 – WikiProject Usability/Main Page 600 – Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Default State RFC#Question 1: When a new account is created, should the preference be set to disable VE ("opt-in") or to enable VE ("opt-out")? 567 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Newyorkbrad 541 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Giano II 488 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Raul654 424 – Wikipedia:Attribution/Poll 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Deskana 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2006/Vote/Can't sleep, clown will eat me 383 – Wikipedia:Requests for adminship/Danny 2 358 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Rebecca 341 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Fred Bauder 327 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/FayssalF 326 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Mindspillage See generally Wikipedia:Times that 300 or more Wikipedians supported something Languages Article in largest number of languages (apart from Main Page): excluding test wikis: Finland in 285 languages (See Special:MostInterwikis) including test wikis: Kurów in 345 languages (See Stats) Featured article on the most different language Wikipedias: Mars (19) Featured article in largest number of language Wikipedias but not English: World War II (18) Featured article on the highest percentage of different language Wikipedias: (fill in if found) Language with highest percentage of featured articles: (fill in if found) Pictures Article with most pictures: List of B8 polytopes with 2,429 images (Also User:Tuvalkin/BSiconRS with a browser-crushing 18,558) Picture in most articles: File:Information.svg (Information.svg) is used 4,776,141 times Counting only links from main-namespace articles, File:Question book-new.svg (Question book-new.svg) is used 407,468 times First picture: (fill in if found) Most edited picture: (fill in if found) Oldest picture on record: File:The Crusades (1935 film) video boxart.jpg created on 08:18, August 14, 2002. Oldest featured picture: (fill in if found) Image sizes: Largest:File:N. M. Price - Sir Walter Scott - Guy Mannering - At the Kaim of Derncleugh original scan.png at 94,693,415 bytes Smallest File:1px f8fcff.gif at 35 bytes Average size (as of February 2012): 229,065 bytes Deletion Longest undetected vandalism in article: Piateda, vandalized on 2 July 2007 and repaired on 27 April 2016, after 8 years, 9 months, 25 days. Longest undetected vandalism on a redirect page: List of albums by the Beatles, vandalized on 25 March 2007 and repaired on 13 September 2016, after 9 years, 5 months, 19 days. Longest undetected vandalism in media files: File:Burnin' Up Single Cover.JPG, vandalized on 25 September 2008 and repaired on 20 January 2015, after 6 years, 3 months, 26 days. Longest undetected copyvio: Gene Bearden, added 20 March 2004 (revision deleted), removed 10 September 2012. Total length of time undetected: 8 years, 5 months, 20 days. Longest undetected hoax article: Bine (mythology) lasted 12 years, 4 months, and 1 day. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia Most deleted (and recreated) article: Daniel Brandt – 40 times created and deleted. Article with most deletion discussions (VfD, AfD and DRV): Gay Nigger Association of America – 41 (deleted, later redone). See Wikipedia:LAME#Deletion wars. Longest deleted article: Probability derivations for making low hands in Omaha hold 'em (305 kB), which was transwikied to Wikibooks as a result of this AFD. Categories and templates First category: Category:World War II was created by User:Raul654 at 03:59 on 30 May 2004 Largest category: Category:All stub articles. (Of course, Category:Articles includes almost all articles within its subcategories.) First template: Template:Periodic table (oldest surviving – there may be older templates that have been deleted. Also, while it was created in 2002, it was originally in the mainspace and was moved to the template namespace in 2010.) Largest template: Template:Pfam2PDBsum (1.7MB, unused due to size) Largest navigation template: Maybe Template:Shakespeare's plays with 1803 wikilinks as of December 2017. It displays 33 other navigation templates but is only used in four articles.[1] Numbers 100,000th article: Hastings, New Zealand 500,000th article: Forced settlements in the Soviet Union (originally entitled "Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union") Millionth article: Jordanhill railway station 2M article: El Hormiguero 3M article: Beate Eriksen 4M article: Ezbet el-Borg 5M article: Persoonia terminalis 100,000th user: User:Wakmah Millionth user: User:Jchriscampbell See also Wikipedia:Milestone statistics High-use pages Most linked-to categories Most linked-to files Most linked-to pages Most transcluded pages Pages with the most interwikis Pages with the most revisions (article pages) Database reports Long pages (all pages on the project) Talk pages by size Most-watched pages Most-watched pages by namespace Most-watched users Pages with the most revisions Long stubs See also History of Wikipedia Wikipedia:Statistics Wikipedia:Article traffic jumps References Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles Wikipedia:Picture of the day/May 2004 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2013-02-04/Special report Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics". October 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-05. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics: Michael Jackson". June 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-30. "Traffic report: President-elect Trump". November 26, 2016. Wikipedia:Database reports/Pages with the most revisions Calculated using the MediaWiki API; using a URL like this one relevant part of Category:Integers, retrieved 25 November 2016. Schneider, Todd (30 May 2014). "What Is the Longest Disambiguation Page on Wikipedia?". Future Tense. Slate. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Article includes links to a Google spreadsheet of largest 1000 and a .csv file of the whole dataset used Schneider, Todd. "Top 1000 Longest Disambiguation Pages on Wikipedia". Google Docs. Retrieved 31 December 2017. Categories: Wikipedia statisticsWikipedia history Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inProject pageTalkReadEditView historySearch Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikidata Page semi-protected Unidentified flying object From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ufo) For other uses, see Unidentified flying object (disambiguation). "UFO" redirects here. For other uses, see UFO (disambiguation). "ufo" redirects here. For the genus of gall-wasps, see Ufo (genus). Photograph of an alleged UFO in Passaic, New Jersey, taken on July 31, 1952. US F/A-18 Footage of a UFO (circled in red) An unidentified flying object or UFO is an object perceived in the sky that is not readily identified. Most UFOs are later identified as conventional objects or phenomena. The term is widely used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial craft. Contents 1 Terminology 2 Studies 3 Early history 4 Investigations 4.1 Project Sign 4.2 Project Grudge 4.3 USAF Regulation 200-2 4.4 Project Blue Book 4.5 Scientific studies 4.6 United States 4.6.1 Post-1947 sightings 4.6.2 Project Sign 4.6.3 Condon Committee 4.6.4 Notable cases 4.7 Brazil 4.8 Canada 4.9 France 4.10 Italy 4.10.1 Notable cases 4.11 United Kingdom 4.11.1 Notable cases 4.12 Uruguay 4.13 Astronomer reports 5 Claims of increase in reports 6 Identification of UFOs 7 Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel 8 Extraterrestrial hypothesis 9 Associated claims 10 Ufology 10.1 Researchers 10.2 Sightings 10.3 Organizations 10.4 Categorization 10.5 Scientific skepticism 11 Conspiracy theories 12 Famous hoaxes 13 In popular culture 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Bibliography 17.1 General 17.2 History 17.3 Psychology 17.4 Technology 17.5 Skepticism 18 External links Terminology The term "UFO" (or "UFOB") was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF) to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was initially restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects" (see Air Force Regulation 200-2). During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were often referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs". The term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but later in popular use. UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, and, more recently, in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons.[1][2] Nevertheless, various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit (e.g., 1951 Flying Saucer Working Party, 1953 CIA Robertson Panel, USAF Project Blue Book, Condon Committee). The Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO as "An unidentified flying object; a 'flying saucer'." The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe.[3] The acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book, then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. He wrote, "Obviously the term 'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO (pronounced Yoo-foe) for short."[4] Other phrases that were used officially and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", and "unidentifiable object".[5][6][7] The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947. On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold timed the sighting and estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph (1,931 km/h). At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs".[8][9] In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft.[3] and because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" (UAP) or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP).[10] "Anomalous aerial vehicle" (AAV) or "unidentified aerial system" (UAS) are also sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.[11] Studies Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even being hoaxes.[note 1] Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, and therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are simply other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Almost no scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals.[12] There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation.[20][21] The void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) in the mid-20th century and, more recently, the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON)[22] and the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS).[23] The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects.[24] UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture,[25] and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology.[12] Early history Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily seen with the naked eye, planetary conjunctions, or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. An example is Halley's Comet, which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 BC and possibly as early as 467 BC. Such sightings throughout history often were treated as supernatural portents, angels, or other religious omens. Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports[26] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images.[27] On April 14, 1561, residents of Nuremberg described the appearance of a large black triangular object. According to witnesses, there were also hundreds of spheres, cylinders and other odd-shaped objects that moved erratically overhead.[28] On January 25, 1878, the Denison Daily News printed an article in which John Martin, a local farmer, had reported seeing a large, dark, circular object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed." Martin, according to the newspaper account, said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer, the first known use of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO.[29] In April 1897, thousands of people reported seeing "airships" in various parts of the United States. Many signed affidavits. Scores of people even reported talking to the pilots. Thomas Edison was asked his opinion, and said, "You can take it from me that it is a pure fake."[30][31] On February 28, 1904, there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles (483 km) west of San Francisco, reported by Lieutenant Frank Schofield, later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Schofield wrote of three bright red egg-shaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer, then changed course and "soared" above the clouds, departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. The largest had an apparent size of about six Suns, he said.[32][33] The three earliest known pilot UFO sightings, of 1,305 similar sightings catalogued by NARCAP, took place in 1916 and 1926. On January 31, 1916, a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights, resembling lighted windows on a railway carriage, that rose and disappeared. In January 1926 a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita, Kansas, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. In late September 1926 an airmail pilot over Nevada said he had been forced to land by a huge, wingless, cylindrical object.[34] On August 5, 1926, while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region, Russian explorer Nicholas Roerich reported, members of his expedition saw "something big and shiny reflecting the sun, like a huge oval moving at great speed. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface, one side of which was brilliant from the sun."[35] Another description by Roerich was of a "shiny body flying from north to south. Field glasses are at hand. It is a huge body. One side glows in the sun. It is oval in shape. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest."[36] In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II, "foo fighters" (metallic spheres, balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. Elmo's fire, the planet Venus, hallucinations from oxygen deprivation, or German secret weapons.[37][38] In 1946, more than 2,000 reports were collected, primarily by the Swedish military, of unidentified aerial objects over the Scandinavian nations, along with isolated reports from France, Portugal, Italy and Greece. The objects were referred to as "Russian hail" and later as "ghost rockets" because it was thought that the mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2 rockets. Although most were thought to be such natural phenomena as meteors, more than 200 were tracked on radar by the Swedish military and deemed to be "real physical objects." In a 1948 top secret document, Swedish authorities advised the USAF Europe that some of their investigators believed these craft to be extraterrestrial in origin.[39] Investigations UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that varied widely in scope and scientific rigor. Governments or independent academics in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, Peru, France, Belgium, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, Spain, and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947), Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969, the secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951), the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14[40] by the Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Brazilian Air Force's 1977 Operação Prato (Operation Saucer). France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) since 1977; the government of Uruguay has had a similar investigation since 1989. Project Sign Main article: Project Sign Project Sign in 1948 produced a highly classified finding (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation. A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed that the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. (For document, see Ghost rockets.) In 1954 German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed that an internal West German government investigation, which he headed, had arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion, but this study was never made public. Project Grudge Main article: Project Grudge Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge, the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951, placing Ruppelt in charge. Blue Book closed down in 1970, using the Condon Committee's negative conclusion as a rationale, thus ending official Air Force UFO investigations. However, a 1969 USAF document, known as the Bolender memo, along with later government documents, revealed that non-public U.S. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. The Bolender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security ... are not part of the Blue Book system," indicating that more serious UFO incidents already were handled outside the public Blue Book investigation. The memo then added, "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose."[note 2] In addition, in the late 1960s a chapter on UFOs in the Space Sciences course at the U.S. Air Force Academy gave serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. When word of the curriculum became public, the Air Force in 1970 issued a statement to the effect that the book was outdated and that cadets instead were being informed of the Condon Report's negative conclusion.[41] USAF Regulation 200-2 Air Force Regulation 200-2,[42] issued in 1953 and 1954, defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved." The regulation went on to say that "it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object," but added: "For those objects which are not explainable, only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release, due to many unknowns involved."[42] Project Blue Book Main article: Project Blue Book Allen Hynek (left) and Jacques Vallée J. Allen Hynek, a trained astronomer who served as a scientific advisor for Project Blue Book, was initially skeptical of UFO reports, but eventually came to the conclusion that many of them could not be satisfactorily explained and was highly critical of what he described as "the cavalier disregard by Project Blue Book of the principles of scientific investigation."[43] Leaving government work, he founded the privately funded CUFOS, to whose work he devoted the rest of his life. Other private groups studying the phenomenon include the MUFON, a grass roots organization whose investigator's handbooks go into great detail on the documentation of alleged UFO sightings. Like Hynek, Jacques Vallée, a scientist and prominent UFO researcher, has pointed to what he believes is the scientific deficiency of most UFO research, including government studies. He complains of the mythology and cultism often associated with the phenomenon, but alleges that several hundred professional scientists—a group both he and Hynek have termed "the invisible college"—continue to study UFOs in private.[25] Scientific studies The study of UFOs has received little support in mainstream scientific literature. Official studies ended in the U.S. in December 1969, following the statement by the government scientist Edward Condon that further study of UFOs could not be justified on grounds of scientific advancement.[15][44] The Condon Report and its conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists, of which Condon was a member. On the other hand, a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) disagreed with Condon's conclusion, noting that at least 30 percent of the cases studied remained unexplained and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study. Critics argue that all UFO evidence is anecdotal[45] and can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. Defenders of UFO research counter that knowledge of observational data, other than what is reported in the popular media, is limited in the scientific community and that further study is needed.[25][46] No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real, physical objects, extraterrestrial in origin, or of concern to national defense. These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years, such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party, Project Condign, the U.S. CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel, the U.S. military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951, and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14). Some public government reports have acknowledged the possibility of physical reality of UFOs, but have stopped short of proposing extraterrestrial origins, though not dismissing the possibility entirely. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the 2009 Uruguayan Air Force study conclusion (see below). Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions, but argued that the inexplicable core cases call for continued scientific study. Examples are the Sturrock panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report. United States U.S. investigations into UFOs include: The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU), established by the U.S. Army sometime in the 1940s, and about which little is known. In 1987, British UFO researcher Timothy Good received from the Army's director of counter-intelligence a letter confirming the existence of the IPU. The letter stated that "the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished during the late 1950s and never reactivated. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK." The IPU records have never been released.[47] Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969 The secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951) Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish, UK, U.S., and Greek militaries (1946–1947) The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53) The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953) The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954) The Brookings Report (1960), commissioned by NASA The public Condon Committee (1966–1968) The private, internal RAND Corporation study (1968)[48] The private Sturrock panel (1998) The secret Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program which was funded from 2007 to 2012.[49] Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U.S. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs. These agencies include the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), FBI,[7] CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and U.S. Navy, in addition to the Air Force.[note 3] The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians, who in the U.S formed research groups such as NICAP (active 1956–1980), Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) (active 1952–1988), MUFON (active 1969–), and CUFOS (active 1973–). In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited this planet and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race."[50][51] Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye."[50][51] The response further noted that efforts, like SETI and NASA's Kepler space telescope and Mars Science Laboratory, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."[50][51] Post-1947 sightings Following the large U.S. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947, on July 9, 1947, United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) intelligence, in cooperation with the FBI,[7] began a formal investigation into selected sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized, such as Kenneth Arnold's. The USAAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether "such a phenomenon could, in fact, occur." The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon," or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled."[52] Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate, the air force investigation decided that, "This 'flying saucer' situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around."[53] A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion. It reported that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious," that there were objects in the shape of a disc, metallic in appearance, and as big as man-made aircraft. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability," general lack of noise, absence of trail, occasional formation flying, and "evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar," suggesting a controlled craft. It was therefore recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation.[note 4] Project Sign This led to the creation of the Air Force's Project Sign at the end of 1947, one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. In August 1948, Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect, but the Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it, such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. Allen Hynek and Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book.[54] Another highly classified U.S. study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 in response to orders from the National Security Council (NSC). This study concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read: the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention ... Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U.S. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles. The matter was considered so urgent that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. It also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists, now known as the Robertson Panel to analyze the problem of UFOs. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953.[55] Condon Committee Main article: Condon Committee A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF, which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968, marked the end of the U.S. government's official investigation of UFOs, though various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation.[note 5] Controversy has surrounded the Condon Report, both before and after it was released. It has been observed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists, particularly at the powerful AIAA ... [which] recommended moderate, but continuous scientific work on UFOs."[15] In an address to the AAAS, James E. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem and criticized the Condon Report and earlier studies by the USAF as scientifically deficient. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions[56] and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court."[14] J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer who worked as a USAF consultant from 1948, sharply criticized the Condon Committee Report and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for continuing to investigate UFO reports. Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book, a USAF investigation that preceded Condon's.[57] Notable cases The Roswell UFO incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents, local law enforcement officers, and the U.S. military, the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site. The Mantell UFO incident January 7, 1948 The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident. In the Kecksburg UFO incident, Pennsylvania (1965), residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area. Police officers, and possibly military personnel, were sent to investigate. The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky (1993) was based on this event, but greatly embellished the original account. The "Phoenix Lights" March 13, 1997 2006 O'Hare International Airport UFO sighting Document on sighting of a UFO occurred on December 16, 1977, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Brazil On October 31, 2008, the National Archives of Brazil began receiving from the Aeronautical Documentation and History Center part of the documentation of the Brazilian Air Force regarding the investigation of the appearance of UFOs in Brazil. Currently this collection gathers cases between 1952 and 2016.[58] Canada In Canada, the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports, sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel, Alberta, it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour UFO incident in Nova Scotia.[59] Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Storey (1952–1954), supported by the Defence Research Board. France On March 2007, the French space agency CNES published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online.[60] French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–), within CNES (French space agency), the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. About 22% of 6000 cases studied remain unexplained.[61] The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral, stating on their FAQ page that their mission is fact-finding for the scientific community, not rendering an opinion. They add they can neither prove nor disprove the Exterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH), but their Steering Committee's clear position is that they cannot discard the possibility that some fraction of the very strange 22% of unexplained cases might be due to distant and advanced civilizations.[62] Possibly their bias may be indicated by their use of the terms "PAN" (French) or "UAP" (English equivalent) for "Unidentified Aerospace Phenomenon" (whereas "UAP" as normally used by English organizations stands for "Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon", a more neutral term). In addition, the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one.[63][64][65] In 2008, Michel Scheller, president of the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (3AF), created the Sigma Commission. Its purpose was to investigate UFO phenomenon worldwide.[66] A progress report published in May 2010 stated that the central hypothesis proposed by the COMETA report is perfectly credible.[67] In December 2012, the final report of the Sigma Commission was submitted to Scheller. Following the submission of the final report, the Sigma2 Commission is to be formed with a mandate to continue the scientific investigation of UFO phenomenon.[68][69] The most notable cases of UFO sightings in France include the Valensole UFO incident in 1965, and the Trans-en-Provence Case in 1981. Italy According to some Italian ufologists, the first documented case of a UFO sighting in Italy dates back to April 11, 1933, to Varese. Documents of the time show that an alleged UFO crashed or landed near Vergiate. Following this, Benito Mussolini created a secret group to look at it, called Cabinet RS/33.[70][71] Alleged UFO sightings gradually increased since the war, peaking in 1978 and 2005. The total number of sightings since 1947 are 18,500, of which 90% are identifiable.[72] In 2000, Italian ufologist Roberto Pinotti published material regarding the so-called "Fascist UFO Files", which dealt with a flying saucer that had crashed near Milan in 1933 (some 14 years before the Roswell, New Mexico, crash), and of the subsequent investigation by a never mentioned before Cabinet RS/33, that allegedly was authorized by Benito Mussolini, and headed by the Nobel scientist Guglielmo Marconi. A spaceship was allegedly stored in the hangars of the SIAI Marchetti in Vergiate near Milan.[73] Julius Obsequens was a Roman writer who is believed to have lived in the middle of the fourth century AD. The only work associated with his name is the Liber de prodigiis (Book of Prodigies), completely extracted from an epitome, or abridgment, written by Livy; De prodigiis was constructed as an account of the wonders and portents that occurred in Rome between 249 BC-12 BC. An aspect of Obsequens' work that has inspired much interest in some circles is that references are made to things moving through the sky. These have been interpreted as reports of UFOs, but may just as well describe meteors, and, since Obsequens, probably, writes in the 4th century, that is, some 400 years after the events he describes, they hardly qualify as eye-witness accounts.[74][75] Notable cases A UFO sighting in Florence, October 28, 1954, followed by a fall of angel hair.[76] In 1973, an Alitalia airplane left Rome for Naples sighted a mysterious round object. Two Italian Air Force planes from Ciampino confirmed the sighting.[77] In the same year there was another sighting at Caselle airport near Turin.[78] In 1978, two young hikers, while walking on Monte Musinè near Turin, saw a bright light; one of them temporarily disappeared and, after a while, was found in a state of shock and with a noticeable scald on one leg. After regaining consciousness, he reported having seen an elongated vehicle and that some strangely shaped beings descended from it. Both the young hikers suffered from conjunctivitis for some time.[79] A close encounter reported in September 1978 in Torrita di Siena in the Province of Siena. A young motorist saw in front of him a bright object, two beings of small stature who wore suits and helmets, the two approached the car, and after watching it carefully went back and rose again to the UFO. A boy who lived with his family in a country house not far from there said he had seen at the same time "a kind of small reddish sun".[80] Yet in 1978, there has been also the story of Pier Fortunato Zanfretta, the best known and most controversial case of an Italian alleged alien abduction. Zanfretta said to have been kidnapped on the night of 6 December and 7 December while he was performing his job at Marzano, in the municipality of Torriglia in the Province of Genoa;[81] 52 testimonies of the case from other people were collected.[81] United Kingdom The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in June 1951, which remained secret for over 50 years. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena, optical illusions, psychological misperceptions/aberrations, or hoaxes. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken, unless and until some material evidence becomes available."[82] Eight file collections on UFO sightings, dating from 1978 to 1987, were first released on May 14, 2008, to The National Archives by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).[83] Although kept secret from the public for many years, most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to the British government and officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.[84] These files include, but are not limited to, UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London.[85] On October 20, 2008, more UFO files were released. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching London Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across.[86] A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the Ministry of Defence between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. The resulting report, titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region", was publicly released in 2006, but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities, despite thousands of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena reports. There are no SIGINT, ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP, seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region], are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin, or that they represent any hostile intent." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to ball lightning are responsible for "the majority, if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings, especially reports of black triangle UFOs.[87] On December 1, 2009, the Ministry of Defence quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the MoD on that date. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release, stating in over fifty years, no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. Furthermore, responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence." The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50,000 a year. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through The National Archives.[88] Notable cases According to records released on August 5, 2010, British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. Reports given to Churchill asserted that the incident involved a Royal Air Force (RAF) reconnaissance aircraft returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of World War II. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. The aircraft's crew were reported to have photographed the object, which they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft, before moving off.[89] According to the documents, details of the coverup emerged when a man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident and described how his grandfather, who had served with the RAF in the war, was present when Churchill and U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter.[90][91] The files come from more than 5,000 pages of UFO reports, letters and drawings from members of the public, as well as questions raised in Parliament. They are available to download from The National Archives website.[83] In the April 1957 West Freugh incident in Scotland, named after the principal military base involved, two unidentified objects flying high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform maneuvers beyond the capability of any known craft. Also significant is their alleged size, which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft. In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980, U.S. military personnel witnessed UFOs near the air base at Woodbridge, Suffolk, over a period of three nights. On one night the deputy base commander, Colonel Charles I. Halt, and other personnel followed one or more UFOs that were moving in and above the forest for several hours. Col. Halt made an audio recording while this was happening and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. After retirement from the military, he said that he had deliberately downplayed the event (officially termed 'Unexplained Lights') to avoid damaging his career. Other base personnel are said to have observed one of the UFOs, which had landed in the forest, and even gone up to and touched it. Uruguay The Uruguayan Air Force has conducted UFO investigations since 1989 and reportedly analyzed 2,100 cases of which they regard approximately 2% as lacking explanation.[92] Astronomer reports The USAF's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1%[93] of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). In 1952, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, then a consultant to Blue Book, conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). In the 1970s, astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the AIAA and American Astronomical Society (AAS). About 5% of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings. Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who admitted to six UFO sightings, including three green fireballs, supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific." Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz, who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. LaPaz reported two personal sightings, one of a green fireball, the other of an anomalous disc-like object. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft.[94] In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for CUFOS found that 24% responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?"[95] Claims of increase in reports MUFON reports that UFO sightings to their offices have increased by 67% in the previous three years as of 2011. According to MUFON international director Clifford Clift in 2011, "Over the past year, we've been averaging 500 sighting reports a month, compared to about 300 three years ago [67 percent],".[96][97] According to the annual survey of reports conducted by Canadian-based UFO research group Ufology Research, reported UFO sightings doubled in Canada between 2011 and 2012.[98][99] In 2013 the Peruvian government's Departamento de Investigación de Fenómenos Aéreos Anómalos (Anomalous Aerial Phenomena Research Department), or "DIFAA", was officially reactivated due to an increase in reported sightings. According to Colonel Julio Vucetich, head of the air force's aerospace interests division who himself claims to have seen an "anomalous aerial object", "On a personal basis, it's evident to me that we are not alone in this world or universe."[100][101] In contrast, according to the UK-based Association for the Scientific Study of Anomalous Phenomena (ASSAP), reports of sightings in Britain to their office have declined by 96% since 1988.[102] Identification of UFOs Main article: Identification studies of UFOs Fata Morgana, a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky just above the horizon, may be responsible for some UFO sightings. (Here, the shape floating above the horizon is the reflected image of a boat.) Fata Morgana can also distort the appearance of distant objects, sometimes making them unrecognizable[103] Lenticular clouds have in some cases been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape Studies show that after careful investigation, the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena. The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are: Astronomical objects (bright stars, planets, meteors, re-entering man-made spacecraft, artificial satellites, and the Moon) Aircraft (aerial advertising and other aircraft, missile launches) Balloons (toy balloons, weather balloons, large research balloons) Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds, unusual clouds, kites, flares) Light phenomena mirages, Fata Morgana, ball lightning, moon dogs, searchlights and other ground lights, etc. Hoaxes A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the USAF included these categories as well as a "psychological" one. An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found, as did other investigations, that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception.[104] Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel Since 2001 there have been calls for greater openness on the part of the government by various persons. In May 2001, a press conference was held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., by an organization called the Disclosure Project, featuring twenty persons including retired Air Force and FAA personnel, intelligence officers and an air traffic controller.[105][106][107][108][109][110][111] They all gave a brief account of what they knew or had witnessed, and stated that they would be willing to testify to what they had said under oath to a Congressional committee. According to a 2002 report in the Oregon Daily Emerald, Disclosure Project founder Steven M. Greer has gathered 120 hours of testimony from various government officials on the topic of UFOs, including astronaut Gordon Cooper and a Brigadier General.[112] In 2007, former Arizona governor Fife Symington came forward and belatedly claimed that he had seen "a massive, delta-shaped craft silently navigate over Squaw Peak, a mountain range in Phoenix, Arizona" in 1997.[113] On September 27, 2010, a group of six former USAF officers and one former enlisted Air Force man held a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., on the theme "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Have Been Compromised by Unidentified Aerial Objects."[114] They told how they had witnessed UFOs hovering near missile sites and even disarming the missiles. From April 29 to May 3, 2013, the Paradigm Research Group held the "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure" at the National Press Club. The group paid former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel and former Representatives Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, Roscoe Bartlett, Merrill Cook, Darlene Hooley, and Lynn Woolsey $20,000 each to hear testimony from a panel of researchers which included witnesses from military, agency, and political backgrounds.[115][116] Apollo 14 astronaut Dr Edgar Mitchell claimed that he knew of senior government employees who had been involved in "close encounters" and because of this he has no doubt that aliens have visited Earth.[117] Extraterrestrial hypothesis Main article: Extraterrestrial hypothesis While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft;[118] however, the term ETV (ExtraTerrestrial Vehicle) is sometimes used to separate this explanation of UFOs from totally earthbound explanations.[119] Associated claims Besides anecdotal visual sightings, reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence, including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book, the Condon Committee, the French GEPAN/SEPRA, and Uruguay's current Air Force study). A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock panel, with specific examples of many of the categories listed below.[120][121][122] Radar contact and tracking, sometimes from multiple sites. These have included military personnel and control tower operators, simultaneous visual sightings, and aircraft intercepts. One such example were the mass sightings of large, silent, low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium, tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence).[123] Another famous case from 1986 was the Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident over Alaska investigated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Photographic evidence, including still photos, movie film, and video. Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs, including ground impressions, burned or desiccated soil, burned and broken foliage, magnetic anomalies[specify], increased radiation levels, and metallic traces. (See, e. g. Height 611 UFO incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro, New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases.) A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest incident in England. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN, then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots. Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis, skin burns and rashes, corneal burns, and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning, such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. Animal/cattle mutilation cases, that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth, germination effects on seeds, and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran, recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents, was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs.[124] Apparent remote radiation detection, some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, also reported by Project Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt in his book. Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves, such as 1957, Ubatuba, Brazil, magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. The 1964 Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces, analyzed by NASA.[125][126] A more recent example involves a tear drop-shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in a television episode of UFO Hunters.[127] Angel hair and angel grass, possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff.[citation needed] Ufology Main article: Ufology Photograph of "an unusual atmospheric occurrence observed over Sri Lanka", forwarded to the UK Ministry of Defence by RAF Fylingdales, 2004 Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence. Researchers Main article: List of ufologists Sightings Main article: List of reported UFO sightings Organizations Main article: List of UFO organizations Categorization This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. Typical categories include: Saucer, toy-top, or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion. Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern, usually reported at night. Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way, but are very different phenomena). Other: chevrons, (equilateral) triangles, crescent, boomerangs, spheres (usually reported to be shining, glowing at night), domes, diamonds, shapeless black masses, eggs, pyramids and cylinders, classic "lights." Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system, created by J. Allen Hynek, and the Vallée system, created by Jacques Vallée.[citation needed] Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance, subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his 1977 UFO movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind). Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types, each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type. Scientific skepticism A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analysis of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI). One example is the response to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia, which the government and the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) described as "man-made". Thomas Djamaluddin, research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at LAPAN stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. Scientists have put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience."[128] Conspiracy theories Main article: Conspiracy theory See also: UFO conspiracy theory, Steven M. Greer, Men in Black, and Brookings Report UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally "covering up" the existence of aliens by removing physical evidence of their presence, or even collaborating with extraterrestrial beings. There are many versions of this story; some are exclusive, while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories. In the U.S., an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80% of Americans believed the U.S. government was withholding such information.[129][130] Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell, Senator Barry Goldwater, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director), Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head), the 1999 French COMETA study by various French generals and aerospace experts, and Yves Sillard (former director of CNES, new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN).[60] It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact (see also ancient astronauts). Famous hoaxes Main article: List of UFO-related hoaxes The Maury Island incident George Adamski, over the space of two decades, made various claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets. He claimed that photographs of the far side of the Moon taken by the Soviet lunar probe Luna 3 in 1959 were fake, and that there were cities, trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the Moon. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham. Ed Walters, a building contractor, in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. These sightings became famous, and are collectively referred to as the Gulf Breeze UFO incident. Three years later, in 1990, after the Walters family had moved, the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. Most investigators, like the forensic photo expert William G. Hyzer,[131] now consider the sightings to be a hoax. In popular culture A UFO Monument at Tenjo, Colombia. Main article: UFOs in fiction UFOs have constituted a widespread international cultural phenomenon since the 1950s. Gallup Polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. In 1973, a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs, whereas only 92 percent had heard of U.S. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House.[132][133] A 1996 Gallup Poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the U.S. government was covering up information regarding UFOs. A 2002 Roper Poll for the Sci-Fi Channel found similar results, but with more people believing that UFOs are extraterrestrial craft. In that latest poll, 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. Again, about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life.[134][135] Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction, for example the United Planets Cruiser C57D in Forbidden Planet (1956), the Jupiter 2 in Lost in Space, and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek, and many others. UFOs and extraterrestrials have been featured in many movies. See also Declassification of UFO documents Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting Kosmopoisk List of alleged aircraft–UFO incidents and near misses Majestic 12 Mystery airship Psychosocial hypothesis UFO religion Ufology Unidentified submerged object or USO Notes For example, the USAF's Project Blue Book concluded that less than 2 % of reported UFOs were "psychological" or hoaxes; Allan Hendry's study for CUFOS had less than 1 %. For example, current USAF general reporting procedures are in Air Force Instruction (AFI)10-206. Section 5.7.3 (p. 64) lists sightings of "unidentified flying objects" and "aircraft of unconventional design" as separate categories from potentially hostile but conventional, unidentified aircraft, missiles, surface vessels, or submarines. Additionally, "unidentified objects" detected by missile warning systems, creating a potential risk of nuclear war, are covered by Rule 5E (p.35). Many of these documents are now online at the FOIA websites of these agencies such as the "FBI FOIA site". Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2007. , as well as private websites such as The Black Vault, which has an archive of several thousand U.S. government UFO-related documents from the USAF, Army, CIA, DIA, DOD, and NSA. The so-called Twining memo of Sept. 23, 1947, by future USAF Chief of Staff, General Nathan Twining, specifically recommended intelligence cooperation with the Army, Navy, Atomic Energy Commission, the Defense Department's Joint Research and Development Board, Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), Project RAND, and the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project. See, e.g., the 1976 Tehran UFO incident where a Defense Intelligence Agency report on the event had a distribution list that included the White House, Secretary of State, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Agency (NSA), and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Several thousand UFO-related pages of more recent vintage from the CIA, NSA, DIA, and other agencies have also been released and can be viewed online.[1] References Blumenthal, Ralph (April 24, 2017). "People Are Seeing U.F.O.s Everywhere, and This Book Proves It". New York Times. 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Sturrock, et al. 1998 "Sturrock Panel". Seattle, WA: ufoevidence.org. Retrieved 2013-09-08. Other links to Sturrock panel. Van Utrecht, Wim. "Triangles over Belgium". Caelestia. Caelestia.be. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Fawcett & Greenwood, 81–89; Good 1988, pp. 318–322, 497–502 Good 1988, pp. 371–373 Stanford 1976, pp. 112–154 "UFO Relics". UFO Hunters. Season 3. Episode 33. May 6, 2009. History. Krismantari, Ika (February 6, 2011). "Crop circles provide food for thought". The Star. Petaling Jaya: Star Publications. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2013. "Is the Government Hiding Facts On UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life?; New Roper Poll Reveals that More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Think So" (Press release). New York: Business Wire. October 15, 2002. Retrieved 2013-09-12. "Poll: U.S. hiding knowledge of aliens". CNN. Atlanta, GA: Turner Broadcasting System. June 15, 1997. Retrieved 2013-09-12. Posner, Gary P. (July 1992). "The Gulf Breeze 'UFOs'". Tampa Bay Sounding. Seminole, FL: Tampa Bay Mensa. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Jacobs 2000, Chapter: "UFOs: Lost in the Myths" by Thomas E. Bullard, p. 141 Jacobs 2000, Chapter: "UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era" by Michael D. Swords, pp. 82–121 "The Roper Poll". Ufology Resource Center. SciFi.com. September 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-07-13. Retrieved 2006-08-19. "UFO Fast Facts". MUFON.com. Cincinnati, OH: Mutual UFO Network, Inc. Archived from the original on 2008-04-30. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Bibliography General Bullard, Thomas; (2012). The Myth and Mystery of UFOs. Lawrence: University of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1729-6. Clark, Jerome (1998). The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. LCCN 97035767. OCLC 37370629. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail; highly documented. Curran, Douglas (2001) [1st edition originally published 1985; New York: Abbeville Press]. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. Foreword by Tom Wolfe (Revised ed.). New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. LCCN 00052589. OCLC 45270419. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N. America, including the so-called "contactee cults." The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals. Deardorff, J.; Haisch, B.; Maccabee, B.; Puthoff, H. E. (2005). "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation" (PDF). Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. London: British Interplanetary Society. 58: 43–50. Bibcode:2005JBIS...58...43D. ISSN 0007-084X. Retrieved 2013-09-13. Friedman, Stanton T. (2008). Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books. ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7. LCCN 2008006291. OCLC 179812690. Greer, Steven M.; (2001). Disclosure. Crozer: Crossing Point. ISBN 0-9673238-1-9. Hall, Richard H., ed. (1997) [Originally published 1964; Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP)]. The UFO Evidence (Reissue ed.). New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. LCCN 64006912. OCLC 39544334. Well-organized, exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases—a classic. Hall, Richard H., ed. (2001). UFO Evidence: Volume II, A 30-year Report. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. LCCN 00055624. OCLC 44391782. Another exhaustive case study, more recent UFO reports. Hendry, Allan (1979). The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating, Evaluating, and Reporting UFO Sightings. Foreword by J. Allen Hynek (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. LCCN 78008211. OCLC 4642190. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases. Hynek, J. Allen (1972). The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. LCCN 76183827. OCLC 341112. Hynek, J. Allen (1997) [Originally published 1977; New York: Dell Publishing Company]. The Hynek UFO Report. New foreword by Jacques Vallée. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. OCLC 3601609. Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek. Jacobs, David M., ed. (2000). UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1032-4. LCCN 00028970. OCLC 43615835. Kérizo, Alain (1997). Les OVNI identifiés: les extraterrestres dans le mystère d'iniquité (in French). Villegenon (Les Guillots, 18260): Éd. Sainte Jeanne d'Arc. ISBN 978-2-9504914-8-0. OCLC 465784973. (associated article) Keyhoe, Donald (1950). The Flying Saucers are Real. New York: Fawcett Publications. LCCN 50004886. OCLC 1674240. Retrieved 2013-09-06. Keyhoe, Donald E. (1953). Flying Saucers from Outer Space (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company. LCCN 53009588. OCLC 181368. Retrieved 2013-05-16. Latagliata, Rosamaria (2006). UFO: verità o menzogna?. Gli atlanti di Voyager (in Italian). Florence: Giunti Editore. ISBN 978-88-09-04698-6. OCLC 635701671. McCarthy, Paul E. (1975). Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. McDonald and the UFO Case Study (Thesis/dissertation) (Internet ed.). Canterbury, CT: Sign Historical Group. OCLC 663722044. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Menzel, Donald H.; Taves, Ernest H. (1977). The UFO Enigma: The Definitive Explanation of the UFO Phenomenon. Introduction by Fred L. Whipple (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-03596-9. LCCN 76016255. OCLC 2597609. Mitchell, Edgar; (2008). The Way of the Explorer. Franklin Lakes: Career Press. ISBN 978-1-56414-977-0. "Reasons to Believe (a collection of short articles by nine different authors)". New York Magazine. March 19 – April 1, 2018. pp. 25–33. Rose, Bill; Buttler, Tony (2004). Flying Saucer Aircraft. Secret Projects. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85780-233-7. OCLC 99774524. Sagan, Carl; Page, Thornton, eds. (1996) [Originally published 1972]. UFO's: A Scientific Debate (Reprint ed.). New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-0196-6. LCCN 72004572. OCLC 35840064. Scully, Frank (1950). Behind the Flying Saucers. New York: Henry Holt and Company. OCLC 1467735. Sheaffer, Robert (1981). The UFO Verdict: Examining the Evidence. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-146-0. LCCN 80084406. OCLC 7364885. Sheaffer, Robert (1998). UFO Sightings: The Evidence. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-213-7. LCCN 98006410. OCLC 38738821. Revised edition of The UFO Verdict. Stanford, Ray (1976). Socorro 'Saucer' in a Pentagon Pantry (1st ed.). Austin, TX: Blueapple Books. ISBN 0-917092-00-7. LCCN 76013768. OCLC 2524239. Sturrock, Peter A.; Holzer, T. E.; Jahn, R.; et al. (1998). "Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports: The Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the Pocantico Conference Center, Tarrytown, New York, September 29 - October 4, 1997" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration. Stanford, CA: Society for Scientific Exploration. 12 (2): 179–229. ISSN 0892-3310. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2013. Sturrock panel report on physical evidence. Sturrock, Peter A. (1999). The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52565-0. LCCN 99066643. OCLC 42645835. Vallée, Jacques (2008) [Originally published 1991; New York: Ballantine Books]. Revelations: Alien Contact and Human Deception. San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books. ISBN 978-1-933665-30-6. LCCN 91091858. OCLC 225866107. Viberti, Pier Giorgio (2010) [Originally published 1997]. Incontri ravvicinati: Avvistamenti e contatti da mondi lontani. Atlanti del sapere (in Italian). Florence: Giunti Editore. ISBN 978-88-09-75032-6. OCLC 800130536. History Clarke, David (2009). The UFO Files: The Inside Story of Real-Life Sightings. Kew: The National Archives. ISBN 978-1-905615-50-6. OCLC 316039535. Reports from the UK government files. Dolan, Richard M. (2000). UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941–1973 (1st ed.). Rochester, NY: Keyhole Publishing Company. ISBN 0-9677995-0-3. LCCN 00691087. OCLC 45546629. Dolan is a professional historian. Downes, Jonathan; Wright, Nigel (2005). The Rising of the Moon (Revised ed.). Bangor, Northern Ireland: Xiphos Books. ISBN 978-0-9544936-5-3. OCLC 70335856. Fawcett, Lawrence; Greenwood, Barry J. (1992) [Originally published 1984 as Clear Intent; Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall]. The UFO Cover-up: What the Government Won't Say. Foreword by J. Allen Hynek (First Fireside ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. LCCN 84009818. OCLC 28384401. Many UFO documents. Good, Timothy (1988). Above Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Cover-Up. Foreword by Lord Hill-Norton (1st Quill ed.). New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-09202-0. LCCN 88208434. OCLC 707516815. Many UFO documents. Good, Timothy (1997) [Originally published 1996]. Beyond Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Security Threat. Foreword by Lord Hill-Norton (Fully revised and updated ed.). London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-34928-7. OCLC 38490850. Good, Timothy (2007). Need to Know: UFOs, the Military, and Intelligence. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. OCLC 180767460. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents Hall, Michael D.; Connors, Wendy A. (1998). Alfred Loedding & the Great Flying Saucer Wave of 1947 (PDF). Albuquerque, NM: White Rose Press. OCLC 41104299. Retrieved 2013-09-07. Keel, John (1996) [Originally published 1970 as UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons]. Operation Trojan Horse (PDF). Lilburn, GA: IllumiNet Press. ISBN 978-0-9626534-6-9. LCCN 96014564. OCLC 34474485. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 20, 2013. Kocher, George (November 1968). UFOs: What to Do (PDF). RAND Corporation. DRU-1571. Retrieved 2013-09-07. UFO historical review, case studies, review of hypotheses, recommendations. Maccabee, Bruce (2000). UFO FBI Connection: The Secret History of the Government's Cover-Up (1st ed.). St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 1-56718-493-6. LCCN 00028277. OCLC 43634902. Randle, Kevin D. (1997). Project Blue Book Exposed (1st ed.). New York: Marlowe & Company. ISBN 1-56924-746-3. LCCN 97072378. OCLC 37047544. Ruppelt, Edward J. (1956). The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. LCCN 56005444. OCLC 1941793. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book. Swords, Michael; Powell, Robert; et al. (2012). UFOs and Government: A Historical Inquiry. San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books. ISBN 978-1-933665-58-0. OCLC 809977863. Weinstein, Dominique F. (February 2001). Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: Eighty Years of Pilot Sightings (PDF). Boulder Creek, CA: National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP). NARCAP TR-04. Retrieved 2013-09-06. Psychology Haines, Richard F., ed. (1979). UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-1228-2. LCCN 79014878. OCLC 5008381. Jung, C G (1978) [Originally published 1958 as Ein moderner Mythus: von Dingen, die am Himmel gesehen werden]. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies. Translation by R.F.C. Hull. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01822-7. LCCN 78004325. OCLC 4762238. Simón, Armando (February 1976). "UFOs: Testing for the existence of Air Force censorship". Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior. 13 (1): 3–5. ISSN 0033-3077. Simón, Armando (1981). "A Nonreactive, Quantitative Study of Mass Behavior with Emphasis on the Cinema as Behavior Catalyst". Psychological Reports. Ammons Scientific. 48 (3): 775–785. doi:10.2466/pr0.1981.48.3.775. ISSN 0033-2941. Simón, Armando (1984). "Psychology and UFOs". Skeptical Inquirer. Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. 8: 355–367. Technology Ford, L. H.; Roman, Thomas A. (1996). "Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries". Physical Review D. 53 (10): 5496–5507. arXiv:gr-qc/9510071?Freely accessible. Bibcode:1996PhRvD..53.5496F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.53.5496. Hill, Paul R. (1995). Unconventional Flying Objects: A Scientific Analysis. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company. ISBN 1-57174-027-9. LCCN 97109204. OCLC 34075199. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer. Krasnikov, S. (2003). "The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts". Physical Review D. 67 (10): 104013. arXiv:gr-qc/0207057?Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003PhRvD..67j4013K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.67.104013. McCampbell, James M. (1976). Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects. Millbrae, CA: Celestial Arts. ISBN 0-89087-144-2. LCCN 76150644. OCLC 2655734. Retrieved 2013-09-13. McCampbell, James M. (1987). "Effects of UFOs Upon People" (PDF). In Evans, Hilary; Spencer, John. UFOs, 1947–1987: The 40-year Search for an Explanation (PDF). London: Fortean Tomes. ISBN 1-870021-02-9. LCCN 88112852. OCLC 18560737. Retrieved 2013-09-13. Rullán, Antonio F. (July 2, 2000). "Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data" (PDF) (Preliminary paper). Retrieved 2013-09-13. Sarfatti, Jack (2006). Super Cosmos: Through Struggles to the Stars. Indianapolis, IN: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4184-7662-5. LCCN 2004095148. OCLC 70962499. Stevens, Henry (2003). Hitler's Flying Saucers: A Guide to German Flying Discs of the Second World War. Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 1-931882-13-4. LCCN 2003271002. OCLC 51731940. Skepticism Plait, Philip C. (2002). "Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye". Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax". Illustrations by Tina Cash Walsh. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. LCCN 2002277382. OCLC 48885221. Ridpath, Ian. "Astronomical Causes of UFOs". Ian Ridpath. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Seeds, Michael (1995) [Originally published 1981]. Horizons: Exploring the Universe (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0-534-24889-6. LCCN 94013521. OCLC 30156735.(Appendix A) Sheaffer, Robert (2012) [Originally published 2011]. Psychic Vibrations: Skeptical Giggles from the Skeptical Inquirer (2nd ed.). Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4636-0157-7. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 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Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie statementMobile view Page semi-protected Unidentified flying object Fro just now WP:RECORDS "WP:RECORDS" redirects here. For WikiProject Record Charts, see WP:RECORD. WikiStats P cartesian graph.svg Main General info Status statistics WikiStats project WikiProject edit counters General statistics Awareness Editors Total size Size comparisons Growth Records Zipf's law comparison Breakdowns Editors by number of edits Editors by article count Time between edits Administrator actions v t e This is a page detailing various records of Wikipedia. Some of them may never be fully known, but it's worth listing the ones we know. Please fill in the gaps, and add your own records (as long as they are sensible)! Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Articles 3 Views 3.1 Cumulative views 3.2 Single-day views 4 Edits 5 Titles 5.1 Article with longest title 5.2 Article with shortest title 6 Links 7 Disambiguation pages 8 Consensus participation 9 Languages 10 Pictures 11 Deletion 12 Categories and templates 13 Numbers 14 High-use pages 15 Database reports 16 See also 17 References Beginnings See also: Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles, Wikipedia:2001 First page: HomePage created on 15 January 2001 First edit: HomePage on 15 January 2001 First named user: January 17: First known named user: User:ScottMoonen[1] First featured article: TheCanonofScripture, MathematicalGrouP, and NewZealand, tied on 23:53, January 21, 2001. However, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was first to be featured on the main page, on February 22, 2004 First Did You Know: Pencil sharpener, posted on February 22, 2004 (created by User:Raul654 on February 15, 2004) First Picture of the Day: Virgin River Narrows, Friday May 14, 2004[2] The English-language Wikipedia's first picture of the day The Virgin River Narrows in Zion National Park, located near Springdale, Utah, is a 16-mile long slot canyon along the Virgin River. Recently rated as number five out of National Geographic's Top 100 American Adventures, it is one of the most rewarding hikes in the world. 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Cumulative views The most visited pages are the Main Page, followed by Special:Search and Special:Random. The most visited articles (non-special pages) are Wiki, followed by Facebook and then YouTube. However, the consistent popularity of these articles is due in part to people accidentally typing these site names/URLs into a Wikipedia search box (either in the MediaWiki interface or a web browser) when intending to actually visit the sites themselves.[3] The most visited articles that are not about a website are United States, followed by Donald Trump and then Barack Obama.[4] The most visited articles that are neither about a website nor pertaining specifically to the United States are India, followed by World War II and then Michael Jackson.[5] Single-day views The most visited page on a single day is always the Main Page, averaging over 23 million views per day as of 2016, far more views than any other page. The most visited article (non-special page) on a single day is Steve Jobs, which had 7.4 million views on 6 October 2011 and 1.6 million on 7 October.[6] The previous record was Michael Jackson, which had 5.9 million views on 26 June 2009.[7] In both cases, the record views were set one day after the subjects' deaths. The most visited article on a single day that was not just after the subject's death is Donald Trump, which had 6.1 million views on November 9, 2016, the day after he was elected President of the United States.[8] Edits Most edited article:[9] in any namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Main Article namespace: List of WWE personnel (48,027 edits as of 29 March 2018; see Special:MostRevisions) in Talk namespace: Talk:Main Page (140,152 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User namespace: User:Cyde/List of candidates for speedy deletion/Subpage (868,556 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User Talk namespace: User talk:Jimbo Wales (145,953 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia talk: Wikipedia talk:Did you know (78,727 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in MediaWiki talk: MediaWiki talk:Spam-blacklist (17,990 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template: Template:AFC statistics (68,248 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template talk: Template talk:Did you know (351,905 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Portal: Portal:Current events/Sports (41,619 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] Article edited by the largest number of users: Article unedited for the longest time: See WP:Database reports/Forgotten articles Article that was stub for longest time: Cannot be determined, because there is no clear definition of how long the text of an article has to be for the article to stop being a stub. Most edits to one article in a single day: 7 July 2005 London bombings (2,857 edits in 24 hours; the article was receiving up to 15 edits per minute at some stages) Most edits by a user (bot): Cydebot has 5,121,263 edits as of 08:13, 16 March 2016 (UTC).[10] Most edits by a user (non-bot): Ser Amantio di Nicolao (1,583,487 edits as of March 15, 2016)[10] Most edits by an IP address: 68.39.174.238 (22,210 edits as of January 27, 2015) Largest single contributing edit (non-bot): revision 747382971 of List of named minor planets (numerical) (+2,024,726), edited by Rfassbind. Largest article at creation date: List of named minor planets (numerical), 2,024,726 bytes Titles Article with longest title See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (technical restrictions) § Title length See the sortable table below for the articles with the longest titles. Note: The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia limits the length of the titles to 255 bytes, thus some titles that would be longer than the ones in the table below are not included. For instance, the full title of When the Pawn... would be 445 bytes. Characters counting spaces Characters excluding spaces Article title 185 155 To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to take certain Federal lands located in El Dorado County, California, into trust for the benefit of the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians 182 182 Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon 180 153 Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders Longest full typed number with an article: 9223372036854775807[11] Article with shortest title A number of Wikipedia articles have single-character titles. There are 36 articles with titles of only one ASCII character in length: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z A further 123 articles have titles of a single Unicode character: À, Ã, È, Ê, Ì, Í, Î, Ï, Ò, Õ, Ú, Û, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? ,? ,?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? Links Page linked to by most other pages: Wikipedia:Sandbox Most linked article in main namespace: IP address Article with most links: Article in most categories: Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, in 286 categories as of 21 February 2018. The 162 top articles are international conventions with a category for each participant. Most categories for a non-convention article: Winston Churchill (131), Nicolae Iorga (122) and Elon Musk (122) Most external links in whole article: Perhaps List of MeSH codes (D02), 2,542 external links, all to the same site (April 25, 2014) Oldest surviving red link: Hammarön from Hammarö Municipality, May 25, 2004 to November 23, 2015 Most linked to image: Information.svg (6,639,021 pages as of 24 February 2018) (see Special:MostLinkedFiles) Disambiguation pages In May 2014 the disambiguation pages with the largest numbers of entries were:[12] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries St. Mary's Church 584 Communist Party (disambiguation) 569 Aliabad 520 The largest with diverse entries:[13] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries Saint Paul (disambiguation) 232 Star (disambiguation) 221 Saint-Pierre 218 Consensus participation 687 – WikiProject Usability/Main Page 600 – Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Default State RFC#Question 1: When a new account is created, should the preference be set to disable VE ("opt-in") or to enable VE ("opt-out")? 567 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Newyorkbrad 541 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Giano II 488 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Raul654 424 – Wikipedia:Attribution/Poll 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Deskana 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2006/Vote/Can't sleep, clown will eat me 383 – Wikipedia:Requests for adminship/Danny 2 358 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Rebecca 341 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Fred Bauder 327 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/FayssalF 326 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Mindspillage See generally Wikipedia:Times that 300 or more Wikipedians supported something Languages Article in largest number of languages (apart from Main Page): excluding test wikis: Finland in 285 languages (See Special:MostInterwikis) including test wikis: Kurów in 345 languages (See Stats) Featured article on the most different language Wikipedias: Mars (19) Featured article in largest number of language Wikipedias but not English: World War II (18) Featured article on the highest percentage of different language Wikipedias: (fill in if found) Language with highest percentage of featured articles: (fill in if found) Pictures Article with most pictures: List of B8 polytopes with 2,429 images (Also User:Tuvalkin/BSiconRS with a browser-crushing 18,558) Picture in most articles: File:Information.svg (Information.svg) is used 4,776,141 times Counting only links from main-namespace articles, File:Question book-new.svg (Question book-new.svg) is used 407,468 times First picture: (fill in if found) Most edited picture: (fill in if found) Oldest picture on record: File:The Crusades (1935 film) video boxart.jpg created on 08:18, August 14, 2002. Oldest featured picture: (fill in if found) Image sizes: Largest:File:N. M. Price - Sir Walter Scott - Guy Mannering - At the Kaim of Derncleugh original scan.png at 94,693,415 bytes Smallest File:1px f8fcff.gif at 35 bytes Average size (as of February 2012): 229,065 bytes Deletion Longest undetected vandalism in article: Piateda, vandalized on 2 July 2007 and repaired on 27 April 2016, after 8 years, 9 months, 25 days. Longest undetected vandalism on a redirect page: List of albums by the Beatles, vandalized on 25 March 2007 and repaired on 13 September 2016, after 9 years, 5 months, 19 days. Longest undetected vandalism in media files: File:Burnin' Up Single Cover.JPG, vandalized on 25 September 2008 and repaired on 20 January 2015, after 6 years, 3 months, 26 days. Longest undetected copyvio: Gene Bearden, added 20 March 2004 (revision deleted), removed 10 September 2012. Total length of time undetected: 8 years, 5 months, 20 days. Longest undetected hoax article: Bine (mythology) lasted 12 years, 4 months, and 1 day. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia Most deleted (and recreated) article: Daniel Brandt – 40 times created and deleted. Article with most deletion discussions (VfD, AfD and DRV): Gay Nigger Association of America – 41 (deleted, later redone). See Wikipedia:LAME#Deletion wars. Longest deleted article: Probability derivations for making low hands in Omaha hold 'em (305 kB), which was transwikied to Wikibooks as a result of this AFD. Categories and templates First category: Category:World War II was created by User:Raul654 at 03:59 on 30 May 2004 Largest category: Category:All stub articles. (Of course, Category:Articles includes almost all articles within its subcategories.) First template: Template:Periodic table (oldest surviving – there may be older templates that have been deleted. Also, while it was created in 2002, it was originally in the mainspace and was moved to the template namespace in 2010.) Largest template: Template:Pfam2PDBsum (1.7MB, unused due to size) Largest navigation template: Maybe Template:Shakespeare's plays with 1803 wikilinks as of December 2017. It displays 33 other navigation templates but is only used in four articles.[1] Numbers 100,000th article: Hastings, New Zealand 500,000th article: Forced settlements in the Soviet Union (originally entitled "Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union") Millionth article: Jordanhill railway station 2M article: El Hormiguero 3M article: Beate Eriksen 4M article: Ezbet el-Borg 5M article: Persoonia terminalis 100,000th user: User:Wakmah Millionth user: User:Jchriscampbell See also Wikipedia:Milestone statistics High-use pages Most linked-to categories Most linked-to files Most linked-to pages Most transcluded pages Pages with the most interwikis Pages with the most revisions (article pages) Database reports Long pages (all pages on the project) Talk pages by size Most-watched pages Most-watched pages by namespace Most-watched users Pages with the most revisions Long stubs See also History of Wikipedia Wikipedia:Statistics Wikipedia:Article traffic jumps References Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles Wikipedia:Picture of the day/May 2004 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2013-02-04/Special report Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics". October 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-05. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics: Michael Jackson". June 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-30. "Traffic report: President-elect Trump". November 26, 2016. Wikipedia:Database reports/Pages with the most revisions Calculated using the MediaWiki API; using a URL like this one relevant part of Category:Integers, retrieved 25 November 2016. Schneider, Todd (30 May 2014). "What Is the Longest Disambiguation Page on Wikipedia?". Future Tense. Slate. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Article includes links to a Google spreadsheet of largest 1000 and a .csv file of the whole dataset used Schneider, Todd. "Top 1000 Longest Disambiguation Pages on Wikipedia". Google Docs. Retrieved 31 December 2017. 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f f just now sexy jk dude 3 days ago hi i just had sex with a girl and i liked it. raper 2 months ago i don't like your website SG 2 weeks ago now started coding,how much can i also make a month michael 2 months ago Funny how Mr. Evan taught C++ but never learned it haha ??????????? Meet Patel 4 months ago cooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooool SG 2 weeks ago He never learned, nor taught, C++. The high school students went to their homes to play with C++ and VB, learning it on their own. However, the computer teacher, Mr. Evans only knew Fortran, which gave him his job. d1no 3 months ago I am mexican Roberto (Rubber-toe) 4 months ago a 4 months ago How much can you make a day? Henrik 6 months ago Why do people think that you don't know what I do is just a little Carson 6 months ago esketit 7 months ago I want to be a code some day falloutXmaster21 8 months ago You're already code. This world is a computer simulation. ass and titties 6 months ago Doesn't make sense bruh AAAAAAA 7 months ago you don't understand what he means. technically he could be right J 2 months ago I wanna know the stroke ration!! anon 8 months ago Ok xxbigdickxx 8 months ago k Xxx_MEATYPU$$Y_xxX 7 months ago Hi I am a 7 year old who programs with 4chan. I am earning $69 per hour as well working for CNN to hack the accounts of the public who do not like them. I really want to buy my own Minecraft PC and a gaming setup so I can become a professional Minecraft player, but my mom is allergic to computers so I also need a new house. Teh arrrtickle halpe me awt a lawt, thx a lot for halpibng Anonymouse 9 months ago I forgot to add that I am also very good at coding. i use the scratch and i can sell my projekts for around $1000Yen each. They are all about my favorite game, mincecraft. I really likem the game and am considering suing microsoft for buying the game. However, to do that I need money. I got this from hackin this cite. Thx! An0n 9 months ago I am soooooo srry guys. I meant south korean won, not yen 4chan Cancer 9 months ago I am 11 and I already stated programming at home 9 months ago I am 69 and looking for a jew 95_YEar_Old 7 months ago Amazing blog! I'm definitely going to follow :D Burgos 9 months ago Well it depends on the kind of project which language you choose to go for programming and many other criterias for that. Thanks for the share. mrunal 1 year ago Hi Par, I live in London UK, and was doing some research into getting into IT field and more specifically programming, your insights are amazing and I have learn't so much from your blog. Thanks George Ohlden 1 year ago Nice read! We prepared a special report with data for 2017. You can compare your salary depend on a language of programming: https://challengerocket.com/blog/top-10-of-programming-languages-with-the-highest-salaries-in-2017.html ChallengeRocket 1 year ago Im 14 and im working on Getting into programming. I've done small things, on scratch and on code.org, however i want to step up my game. I want this for my career. Where should i start? 1 year ago I'm 10 and I didn't start programming yet Meiling 1 year ago 7 months ago im 14 years old and i make 35000 working at the weekends programming in C++ jackson 1 year ago I'm 12 and I make 45000 working weekends programming in Java, C++, PHP, C++, FORTRAN, LISP, COBOL, C#, and ASSEMBLY all simultaneously. mark 1 year ago Are you kidding me? I am in my mother's womb, and I make 115,000 by slamming my keyboard against the wall until a pretty picture appears on the screen. Weldin 1 year ago Hahaha, nice one Omair Shafiq 1 year ago Man y'all don't even know Programemrs Jqwan 1 year ago i think its just less. because many big youtubers earn 100,000+ easily Susman 1 year ago yes a 11 year can code. Better get started at a young age and its fun 1 year ago 7 months ago true 7 months ago it the best job on the world 1 year ago can a 11 year old code? Landon LeJeune 1 year ago you can code big boobies and how you fucked my mother ass 6 months ago CANCER YEAH IM POKEMON GO KID. BOOBS?WHAT POKEMON IS THAT cancer 11 yr old 7 months ago Of course! 1 year ago Am Monalisa and l want to be a computer programming Monalisa 1 year ago Will you work for TEch Companies, and if you do, will you get free gadgets?? Ibbi 1 year ago Why would you want free gadgets when you're making 100k you jew sss 6 months ago it"s called code Louisville, they use Treehouse as a teaching tool. Is it good enough to get in the business with? larry Jones 1 year ago I'm 13 and I'm a Java expert. Currently developing Android applications. None of them are released yet, but I've been working on an app for around 5 months. It'll be free. I don't care much about money. But this actually encouraged me a lot. AbAppletic 1 year ago sure you are sss 6 months ago I'm 5 and I'm a java expert, C++ expert, C# expert, PHP expert, Fortran expert, COBOL expert, Assembly Expert, and VBA expert. mark 1 year ago hey im 16 and im trying to learn coding, could you tell me how you learned to code? could you please reply t my email amal_kiani@outlook.com amal kiani 1 year ago you could learn how to code by going to codecademy.com 1 year ago Apologies for the dumb question but what difference does it make where you reside? How much does a programmer from a very reprehensible place make? Harry 1 year ago 100k means nothing anymore. Lawer: 200-400k Surgeon: 400-1M+ Dentist: 300k Get the picture? Don't waste your time with 'tech'. Its a dead end just like engineering. The Truth 1 year ago Where did you get these numbers from? They earn much less than that. A good coder doesn't rely on the job salary only. You can make more money from making multiple apps or being a freelancer. And depending on your experience you can make much more than 100k, I know programmers who make 200k-400k. And some companies give you stock options which means more money. Notch made 2 billion from Minecraft. Do you know a lawyer or surgeon who made anything close to that number? The richest person in the world, Bill Gates got there because of Microsoft, a tech company. Tech is still alive and is only getting bigger and there is huge demand for good programmers all the time. zzz 6 months ago Yeah, that's a great idea. Let's all stop working in the tech industry! No more smartphone, laptop, PCs, software, improvements on AI, and I could go on like this forever. Get the picture? Kay 1 year ago what type of lawyer? Most lawyers do not make that kind of salary. mark 1 year ago You know that not everyone gets to be a lawyer or a surgeon, right? Average american people get around 60k a year so 100k is still pretty much. The real truth 1 year ago You know some people like me just hate working with people and that's why they are tech guys or IT specialists. For me 100k is still a lot, lot of money SomeGuy 1 year ago how much do they make with out salaries like 50 dollar an hour or so on he has no name 1 year ago What you're not mentioning here is that as a valuable Senior Engineer, you probably will be working insane hours, and if you are not careful, you will be doing it on a salary. Even if it seems big, it won't be that much larger by the hour than mid level programmers are making working a straight 40. You also will be expected to sign a "you own my entire brain" Intellectual Property agreement that will prevent you from doing anything that your company doesn't then own all the rights to. This may well be true even if, by some sheer act of willpower, you work a 90 hour week, then put in a 20 hour week on your own idea. If you attempt this, it will, in fact, eventually kill you. You will also pay an insane level of taxes, unless you can convert them somehow to capital gains earnings. If you don't make it to management by 45, you probably will get fired, or put under impossible conditions until you quit. There is only so good you can get and there is hard salary ceiling unless you get into a startup or start your own business that's successful. You should also know that if you do attempt a startup, or work for one, you're chances of going back to a big fat corporate america job are significantly reduced. Companies know that you want to run your own ship or be a principal in a big ship, not a good worker slave, so they will hire a less experienced, lower paid, worse developer to do the job, even if that means hiring 3 people instead of 1. Also, know that those big corporations were caught conspiring with each other not to hire current or former employees of the other large companies. Google, Facebook, Oracle, and Apple were among those involved. So once you take a big job, save a lot and be well prepared when and if you take the leap to be your own boss. You will also need to take the time to learn all the business rules, regulations, tax stuff. This is not to be underestimated, it's a huge amount of stuff. Sam Allen 1 year ago Plus that you suck 2 years ago Is ther a one answer 2 years ago I'm 17 i was wondering how much i could make for a side job on programming and just working with computers in general possibly turning it into my own business i know HTML / CSS / Javascript / Lua / and some foundations of Java i also am in the progress of 3D Modeling and Rendering i am currently making you tube intros and Models for Garry`s mod but i don't charge anything due to not being of age for a credit card / pay pale. Jeremiah 2 years ago money momey money RMB 2 years ago im 12 years old and i want to do programming as a job when i get older. i wanna make a lot of money because i want to buy a cat and i also want to build a separate house for my cat because my mom is allergic to cats. thank you this was helpful Cassandra Peters 2 years ago this sounds dope af cassie 2 years ago Im 12 years old and a started with python programking a few months ago. Nothing too hard i understand it and everything but after reading all this i dont think i can do it. My mother was a validictorian with a 4.0 in high school she is a psychologist now and my dad was a 4.0 in college he took C++ and said it was the hardest class he took. Do any of you think i can do it becasue i just need a little motivation to keep working on programming. Anonymous 2 years ago im 14 in middle school just started python i dont care what anyone says or how hard it is you can do it and so can i so keep on going 2 years ago I am a front-end programmer (HTML, CSS, Bootstrap, JQuery)... I am a 17 year old and I feel like I am too late, as I should now be a professional programmer :( However, I am still learning Jscript and PHP as I want to be a free-lance web developer or even start a ready-script company... Khalid 2 years ago Oh, you have more than enough time to learn to program and become a professional programmer. I don't know what your best bet for getting there is, but I can tell you that at seventeen years old, you've got plenty of time to learn. I see a lot of older people (in their 30s and above) in introductory programming classes at school, just starting to get their Bachelor of Science. Another thing to note is that those introductory classes are actually meant for people who have zero prior programming knowledge - some of the first things done in those classes are learning how to declare variables and write Hello World programs. I'm not going to say that starting earlier wouldn't be an advantage, but you're already working in the field which is advantageous. Don't be discouraged, don't quit before you've started. It's a long journey to become a great programmer, but if you're interested in it, it is a lot of fun to do and so very worth it. Best of luck! Matthew 2 years ago Ohhhh ma gawd i try to do ittttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt, but it dont workkkkkkkk, what the button to do the jump thing? juan 2 years ago See the great thing about programming though is you do actually make more than doctors. Since they spend most their life paying off insane school debt and at the same time paying for insanely high malpractice insurance. As a programmer you most likely will make more than 70% of the lawyers out there and definitely more than any lawyer who is just starting out or not a partner of their firm. AND as for making less than a banker. It's hard to get into that field and if you consider 'a banker' to be someone who works in a bank you will be making more than them as well. With the Opportunity to build something and sell it for millions. Steven 2 years ago hi everyone i am 13 years old.im learning c++ for 2 months.i want to go abroad to MIT.How can i win scholarship? Nickolas 2 years ago Good job bro. If you want to go to MIT I'm a be real with you, your going to want to make sure you do not mess around in school. Make sure you go for some honor classes and a 4.0 GPA or higher. I would recommend taking bio, chem, and psychics. Also make sure you get really good at math because a part of computers is being pretty good at math for whatever you want to do. IF you go to MIT first your going to need the average GPA to get in, extra circulars, and good SAT scores. BTW extra circular can be like math club and merit scholarship club stuff like that. If you don't want to do sports then don't do it. I'm a be honest to money is a big factor, depending what level of education you want, I would recommend going to a school that is cheap. Another thing I want to include is if you get your BA in some kind of computer major, going to grad school to MIT might give you a higher chance. Messg me kik:nacho218 Ignacio-Manuel Atilano 2 years ago Your 13 years old man. You still have at least 2-3 years before you have to start worrying about college. As for finding a scholarship in 13 years. It's called google I hear there is even an app. But at the end of the day if you don't get any scholarships for good grades/ sports taking out college loans is not that bad. Your family can be piss poor and you can still go to college. Steven 2 years ago Make sure to change jobs every few years. That will give you a twice better raise than a promotion. Coderplusplus 3 years ago I already am trying to learn it at a young age corb 3 years ago i did not known they earn that much money they are so so lucky mey 3 years ago It's 2014. I'm in Canada, I've been a programmer for 12 years. I can code in all .NET languages, C++, PHP, Java, Javascript, and many more. I've never made more than 47k/year and I have never received a raise or a promotion. I have always had to leave secure employment to upgrade my pay-cheque. Joshua Richet 3 years ago Well you're in Canada, that's the problem. Move to the USA if you want to make the big bucks. sss 6 months ago hi Joshua!This is my first year of programming.i have only worked as programmer 8 months.I already received over 100000!Only thing thing i can recommend is be creative and choose only one language.I had worked on a channel program for 1 month and now i am working on video games.i always use c++ Nick Thompson 2 years ago can i work with you cool mey 3 years ago how old do people usually start programming, i feel like i am already late and i am starting at 16 alejandro 3 years ago My brother started around 16 and now he's making $500 per month Sky 3 years ago that is really bad money my brother makes 2000 a month sometimes as a firefighter and a coder cadyn 1 year ago i was 12 when i started though i feel that doesnt really mater a lot. It depends on talent and will. Jari 3 years ago In Argentina also ALL programmers are badly paid :( Misery 4 years ago did you really have to bring up dr. robotnik? ohh the horror. he was definitely not making $100K. Zehra 4 years ago I make $170k in the SF Bay Area, and still mainly use the C language, as I did when I started 15 years ago, but past about $120k the amount of time which I spend programming steadily decreased as I moved into technical leadership roles and spent time coordinating with other teams, making plans with product management, doing architectural review, etc. Technical Lead, not Programmer 4 years ago I really don't care that much about the money but is it a fun job? Do you go to work everyday with a smile and really for another challange or is it a really stressful job. Ruben 1 year ago In Portugal ALL programmers are badly paid! Pedro 4 years ago You can't compare the standard of living in Portugal and that of the bay or even other European cities... Ric 4 years ago But Mr Evans did you some good, didn't he? If everyone is looking for the bottom dollar, we all lose. Chris 4 years ago So true Onelove 2 years ago I suspect Mr. Evans could have made a comeback with Python or Ruby. over 40 4 years ago g payscale.com? It can tell you very specifically how much you should make based on location, programming language, years exp, etc. It does this by crowdsourcing salary dat compare the standard of living in P 1 year ago compare the standard of living in P 1 year ago Have you tried using payscale.com? It can tell you very specifically how much you should make based on location, programming language, years exp, etc. It does this by crowdsourcing salary data from other developers. Alex 4 years ago oh my daaaiiise fam. Jelly 3 years ago Help Search results how to build a car Results 1 – 20 of 14,235 Content pages Multimedia Everything Advanced The page "How to build a car" does not exist. You can ask for it to be created, but consider checking the search results below to see whether the topic is already covered. Car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people 66 KB (7,325 words) - 00:29, 31 March 2018 Tesla Factory years, and the same facility is a brightly-lit, no-earplugs-needed, high-tech operation "How Tesla Builds Electric Cars , Tesla Motors Part 2 (WIRED)" 57 KB (5,165 words) - 20:26, 13 April 2018 Top Gear challenges (redirect from Car ice hockey) series by the "How hard can it be?" and Cheap car challenges, which are much larger in scope. How fast do you have to drive to be undetected by a speed camera 93 KB (14,527 words) - 20:27, 16 April 2018 Adrian Newey (category Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y) to race in the MRF Challenge over the winter before stepping up to the European Formula 3 Championship for 2016. Newey's memoir, How to Build a Car, 26 KB (2,939 words) - 01:13, 12 April 2018 Jiji.ng According to the Google Play statistics, Jiji App is in the list of ten most downloaded apps in Nigeria. "How Jiji.ng is helping users build their careers 7 KB (590 words) - 18:08, 2 April 2018 Field of Dreams (redirect from If you build it, he will come) finally seeing a vision of a baseball diamond in his field. Annie is skeptical, but she allows him to plow the corn under in order to build a baseball field 23 KB (2,833 words) - 20:48, 12 February 2018 List of Bob the Builder characters (category Cleanup tagged articles without a reason field from July 2010) This is a list of characters from the Bob the Builder television series. Bob (original catchphrase: "Can we fix it?"; current one: "Can we build it?") 23 KB (3,352 words) - 02:49, 16 April 2018 Volvo Cars Volvo Cars (Swedish: Volvo personvagnar), stylized as VOLVO in the logo, is a Swedish vehicle manufacturer established in 1927 and headquartered on Torslanda 93 KB (9,265 words) - 09:13, 18 April 2018 How I Met Your Mother How I Met Your Mother (often abbreviated to HIMYM) is an American sitcom that originally aired on CBS from September 19, 2005, to March 31, 2014. The 96 KB (10,894 words) - 09:12, 12 April 2018 Apple electric car project engineer. Apple co-founder and CEO Steve Jobs had plans to design and build a car, according to Apple board member and J.Crew Group CEO Mickey Drexler 27 KB (2,529 words) - 12:01, 20 February 2018 Autonomous car An autonomous car (also known as a driverless car, self-driving car, robotic car, auto) and an unmanned ground vehicle is a vehicle that is capable of 134 KB (14,234 words) - 19:29, 18 April 2018 Production car speed record This is a list of the world's record-breaking top speeds achieved by street-legal production cars (as opposed to concept cars or modified cars). For the 24 KB (1,649 words) - 13:39, 18 April 2018 MSD Ignition 21 December 2017. Finkeiner, Andy (2009). How to Build Max-Performance Mopar Big-Blocks. Minnesota: S-A Design. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-934709-03-0. "Archived 8 KB (822 words) - 20:42, 23 February 2018 Rexdale (February 18, 2006). "At The Least, Build a Community Centre". Urbantoronto.ca. Royson, James. "Closing school dagger to heart of Rexdale." Toronto Star 8 KB (605 words) - 00:52, 11 April 2018 Jet Star (Casino Pier) lunch, he discovered that Koch had begun to build the coaster in a completely different part of the pier. After a long argument, Koch's preferred location 10 KB (537 words) - 18:03, 10 February 2018 Who's Minding the Mint? Buono) who can build a boat that can fit down a manhole, and an ice cream truck driver named Willie (Bob Denver) who has the means to distract the one 8 KB (966 words) - 20:25, 31 January 2018 Chicago Pneumatic on Chicago Pneumatic Brand - A & M Today". Aggregatesandminingtoday.com. 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2013-01-27. "Help build things that last - Chicago Pneumatic 12 KB (1,198 words) - 06:42, 27 March 2018 Gangsters 2 player advice on how to build an organized crime racket. During the first mission, Bane kills the men who actually murdered his father, only to learn they were 5 KB (610 words) - 22:29, 27 February 2018 Andrew Hauptman innovative and influential approaches to using sports to build a Culture of Health in their communities. The Foundation is also a Chicago Charity Challenge Award 11 KB (988 words) - 17:52, 27 March 2018 Smart Fortwo (redirect from Smart Car (USA)) Smart Fortwo (stylized as "smart fortwo") is a rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive, 2-seater hatchback city car manufactured and marketed by the Smart division 60 KB (6,474 words) - 05:36, 14 April 2018 Results from sister projects Journal of Discourses/Volume 16/Means Required to Build the Temples, etc. Journal of Discourses by George A. Smith Volume 16, MEANS REQUIRED TO BUILD THE TEMPLES—THE WORD OF WISDOM—UNITY NEEDED IN BUILDING UP ZION—SABBATH SCHOOLS—JOURNEYINGS Texts from Wikisource Philip K. Dick (redirect from How To Build A Universe That Doesn't Fall Apart Two Days Later) continued to play anyhow. Author’s Note (p. 276)Drug misuse is not a disease, it is a decision, like the decision to step out in front of a moving car. You Quotes from Wikiquote How To Build a Pinewood Derby Car/Rules Pinewood Derby rules; each Pack, District or Council is free to set its own rules. However, car construction rules have appeared in some BSA publications Textbooks from Wikibooks View (previous 20 | next 20) (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500) Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inSpecial pageSearch Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Upload file Special pages Printable version Languages Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie statementMobile view https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=how+to+build+a+car&title=Special:Search&go=Go&searchToken=9hhqggb9kd14nfiyz7v2rqpgb Page semi-protected Wikipedia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Wiki pedia) This article is about the Internet encyclopedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Wikipedia's Main Page. For Wikipedia's visitor introduction, see Wikipedia's About Page. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation). "The Free Encyclopedia" redirects here. For other encyclopedias, see List of encyclopedias. Wikipedia A white sphere made of large jigsaw pieces, with letters from several alphabets shown on the pieces Wikipedia wordmark The logo of Wikipedia, a globe featuring glyphs from several writing systems Screenshot Type of site Online encyclopedia Available in 299 languages Owner Wikimedia Foundation Created by Jimmy Wales, Larry Sanger[1] Website wikipedia.org Alexa rank Steady 5 (Global, January 2018) Commercial No Registration Optional[notes 1] Users >307,128 active users[notes 2] and >74,504,024 registered users Launched January 15, 2001; 17 years ago Current status Active Content license CC Attribution / Share-Alike 3.0 Most text is also dual-licensed under GFDL; media licensing varies Written in LAMP platform[2] OCLC number 52075003 Wikipedia (/?w?k??pi?di?/ (About this sound listen), /?w?ki?pi?di?/ (About this sound listen) WIK-ih-PEE-dee-?) is a multilingual, web-based, free-content encyclopedia project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation and based on a model of openly editable content. Wikipedia is the largest and most popular general reference work on the Internet,[3][4][5] and is named as one of the most popular websites.[6] The project is owned by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit which "operates on whatever monies it receives from its annual fund drives".[7][8][9] Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.[10] Sanger coined its name,[11][12] a portmanteau of wiki[notes 3] and encyclopedia. There was only the English-language version initially, but similar versions in other languages quickly developed, which differ in content and in editing practices. With 5,615,656 articles,[notes 4] the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 40 million articles in 299 different languages[14] and, as of February 2014, it had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors each month.[15] As of March 2017, Wikipedia has about 40,000 high-quality articles, known as Featured Articles and Good Articles, that cover vital topics.[16][17] In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia, and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Encyclopædia Britannica.[18] Time magazine stated that the remarkably open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and possibly the best encyclopedia in the world and it was testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales.[19] Wikipedia has been criticized for allegedly exhibiting systemic bias, presenting a mixture of "truths, half truths, and some falsehoods",[20] and, in controversial topics, being subject to manipulation and spin.[21] In 2017, Facebook announced that it would help readers detect fake news by suitable links to Wikipedia articles. YouTube in 2018 announced a similar plan. In response, the Washington Post headlined Wikipedia, the ‘good cop’ of the Internet.[22] Contents 1 History 1.1 Nupedia 1.2 Launch and early growth 1.3 Milestones 2 Openness 2.1 Restrictions 2.2 Review of changes 2.3 Vandalism 3 Policies and laws 3.1 Content policies and guidelines 4 Governance 4.1 Administrators 4.2 Dispute resolution 5 Community 5.1 Studies 5.2 Diversity 6 Language editions 6.1 English Wikipedia editor decline 7 Critical reception 7.1 Accuracy of content 7.2 Discouragement in education 7.3 Quality of writing 7.4 Coverage of topics and systemic bias 7.5 Explicit content 7.6 Privacy 7.7 Sexism 8 Operation 8.1 Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates 8.2 Software operations and support 8.3 Automated editing 8.4 Wikiprojects, and assessments of articles' importance and quality 8.5 Hardware operations and support 8.6 Internal research and operational development 8.7 Internal news publications 9 Access to content 9.1 Content licensing 9.2 Methods of access 10 Cultural impact 10.1 Trusted source to combat fake news 10.2 Readership 10.3 Cultural significance 10.4 Sister projects – Wikimedia 10.5 Publishing 10.6 Scientific use 11 Related projects 12 See also 12.1 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 14.1 Academic studies 14.2 Books 14.3 Book reviews and other article 15 External links History Main article: History of Wikipedia Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger Nupedia Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with large initial "N" Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[23] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[10] Nupedia was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Jimmy Wales, the CEO of Bomis, and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed initially under its own Nupedia Open Content License, switching to the GNU Free Documentation License before Wikipedia's founding at the urging of Richard Stallman.[24] Sanger and Wales founded Wikipedia.[25][26] While Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[27][28] Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[29] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[30] External audio The Great Book of Knowledge, Part 1, Ideas with Paul Kennedy, CBC, January 15, 2014 Launch and early growth Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[31] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[27] Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view"[32] was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were relatively few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia.[27] Originally, Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit.[33] Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[34] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing even the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[35] Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[36] These moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[37] Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43] In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid (Spain) found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, the project lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45] The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study.[47] Two years later, in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, Wales also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 article titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" in MIT's Technology Review questioned this claim. The article revealed that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of the volunteer editors who update and correct the online encyclopedia and those still there have focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators is also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis".[51] Wikipedia blackout protest against SOPA on January 18, 2012 File:Wikipedia Edit 2014.webm A promotional video of the Wikimedia Foundation that encourages viewers to edit Wikipedia, mostly reviewing 2014 via Wikipedia content Milestones In January 2007, Wikipedia entered for the first time the top-ten list of the most popular websites in the U.S., according to comScore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, Wikipedia was ranked number 9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when the rank was number 33, with Wikipedia receiving around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2015, Wikipedia has rank 5[6][53] among websites in terms of popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received 8 billion pageviews every month.[54] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia has 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore."[15] On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[55] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced Wikipedia content.[56][57] The Wikipedia Page on December 17, 2001. Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[58][59] On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth flattened but that it has "lost nearly 10 per cent of its page-views last year. That's a decline of about 2 billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by 12 per cent, those of German version slid by 17 per cent and the Japanese version lost 9 per cent."[60] Varma added that, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[60] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Security indicated that he suspected much of the page view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[60] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked fifth in the most popular websites globally.[61] Openness Number of English Wikipedia articles[62] Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[62] Differences between versions of an article are highlighted as shown Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[notes 5][63] regarding the security of its content.[63] It started almost entirely open—anyone could create articles, and any Wikipedia article could be edited by any reader, even those who did not have a Wikipedia account. Modifications to all articles would be published immediately. As a result, any article could contain inaccuracies such as errors, ideological biases, and nonsensical or irrelevant text. Restrictions Due to the increasing popularity of Wikipedia, popular editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions in some cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[64] On the English Wikipedia, among others, some particularly controversial, sensitive and/or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to some degree.[65][66] A frequently vandalized article can be semi-protected or extended confirmed protected, meaning that only autoconfirmed or extended confirmed editors are able to modify it.[67] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators are able to make changes.[68] In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles,[69] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012.[70] Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[71] The editing interface of Wikipedia Review of changes Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides certain tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. The "History" page of each article links to each revision.[notes 6][72] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's history page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of any changes. "New pages patrol" is a process whereby newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[73] In 2003, economics PhD student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki create a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favor "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[74] Vandalism Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises the integrity of Wikipedia is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor. Vandalism can also include advertising and other types of spam.[75] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information to an article, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the underlying code of an article, or use images disruptively.[76] White-haired elderly gentleman in suit and tie speaks at a podium. American journalist John Seigenthaler (1927–2014), subject of the Seigenthaler incident Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix vandalism is a few minutes.[77][78] However, some vandalism takes much longer to repair.[79] In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005. Seigenthaler was falsely presented as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[79] The article remained uncorrected for four months.[79] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales replied that he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[80][81] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[79] This incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia, specifically targeted at tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[82] Policies and laws External video Jimbo at Fosdem cropped.jpg Wikimania, 60 Minutes, CBS, 20 minutes, April 5, 2015, co-founder Jimmy Wales at Fosdem Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the U.S. state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[83] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[69] Content policies and guidelines Further information: Wikipedia:Core content policies According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-like.[84] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[85] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[86] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[87] This can at times lead to the removal of information that is valid.[88] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[89] All opinions and viewpoints, if attributable to external sources, must enjoy an appropriate share of coverage within an article.[90] This is known as neutral point of view (NPOV). Governance Further information: Wikipedia:Administration Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[91][92] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor and is not vetted by any recognized authority.[93] Wikipedia's contributors avoid a tragedy of the commons by internalizing benefits. They do this by experiencing flow and identifying with and gaining status in the Wikipedia community.[94] Administrators Editors in good standing in the community can run for one of many levels of volunteer stewardship: this begins with "administrator",[95][96] privileged users who can delete pages, prevent articles from being changed in case of vandalism or editorial disputes, and try to prevent certain persons from editing. Despite the name, administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent certain persons from making disruptive edits (such as vandalism).[97][98] Fewer editors become administrators than in years past, in part because the process of vetting potential Wikipedia administrators has become more rigorous.[99] Bureaucrats name new administrators, solely upon the recommendations from the community. Dispute resolution Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeatedly making opposite changes to an article, known as edit warring.[100][101] Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semi-formal dispute resolution process to assist in such circumstances. In order to determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[notes 7] or seek outside input through third opinion requests or by initiating a more general community discussion known as a request for comment. Arbitration Committee Main article: Arbitration Committee The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[102] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%). Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[103] Community Main article: Wikipedia community File:Wikimania - the Wikimentary.webm Video of Wikimania 2005 – an annual conference for users of Wikipedia and other projects operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, was held in Frankfurt am Main, Germany from August 4 to 8. Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "Talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[104] File:Editing Hoxne Hoard at the British Museum.ogv Wikipedians and British Museum curators collaborate on the article Hoxne Hoard in June 2010 Wikipedia's community has been described as cult-like,[105] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[106] The project's preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[107] Wikipedians sometimes award one another virtual barnstars for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[108] Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[109] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked on the project.[110] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[111] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, 1 percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[112] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[113] The English Wikipedia has 5,615,656 articles, 33,396,268 registered editors, and 137,003 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past thirty days. Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[114] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[114] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[115] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty. Studies A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia [...] are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[116] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "(I)t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users... 524 people... And in fact the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[111] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most content in Wikipedia (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[111] A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[117][118] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness, that the differences with the control group were small as were the samples.[119] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[120] Diversity Several studies have shown that most of the Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13% of Wikipedia editors were female.[121] Because of this, universities throughout the country tried to encourage females to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[122] Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in the New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly, is because identifying as a feminist may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior."[123] Language editions Main article: List of Wikipedias There are currently 299 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). Thirteen of these have over one million articles each (English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, Dutch, French, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Waray-Waray, Polish, Vietnamese and Japanese), six more have over 500,000 articles (Portuguese, Chinese, Ukrainian, Persian, Catalan and Arabic), 40 more have over 100,000 articles, and 78 more have over 10,000 articles.[124][125] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 5.6 million articles. As of September 2017, according to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org; English Wikipedia) receives approximately 57% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages (Russian: 7%; Spanish: 6%; Japanese: 6%; Chinese: 5%).[6] As of April 2018, the six largest language editions are (in order of article count) the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[126] Distribution of the 47,828,970 articles in different language editions (as of 18 April 2018)[127] English (11.7%) Cebuano (11.3%) Swedish (7.9%) German (4.5%) French (4.1%) Dutch (4%) Russian (3.1%) Italian (3%) Spanish (2.9%) Polish (2.7%) Waray (2.6%) Vietnamese (2.4%) Japanese (2.3%) Chinese (2.1%) Other (35.4%) Logarithmic graph of the 20 largest language editions of Wikipedia (as of 18 April 2018)[128] (millions of articles) 0.1 0.3 1 3 English 5,615,656 Cebuano 5,382,902 Swedish 3,784,223 German 2,173,649 French 1,976,051 Dutch 1,929,164 Russian 1,467,677 Italian 1,431,566 Spanish 1,404,701 Polish 1,275,744 Waray 1,262,937 Vietnamese 1,170,721 Japanese 1,103,459 Chinese 1,001,520 Portuguese 997,357 Ukrainian 781,836 Persian 611,257 Serbian 605,694 Catalan 578,057 Arabic 567,554 The unit for the numbers in bars is articles. A graph for pageviews of Turkish Wikipedia shows a great drop of roughly 80 % immediately after the 2017 block of Wikipedia in Turkey was imposed. Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[129] or points of view.[130] Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[131][132][133] Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[134] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all of its projects (Wikipedia and others).[135] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[136] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[137] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. As for the rest, it is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might only be available in English, even when they meet notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects. Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because fully automated translation of articles is disallowed.[138] Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions. A study published by PLoS ONE in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[139] The Wikimedia Foundation hopes to increase the number of editors in the Global South to 37% by 2015.[140] English Wikipedia editor decline On March 1, 2014, The Economist in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia" cited a trend analysis concerning data published by Wikimedia stating that: "The number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[141] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five of more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The attrition rates for editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, were cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 editors, which has dropped to 30,000 editors as of the start of 2014. At the quoted trend rate, the number of active editors in English Wikipedia has lost approximately 20,000 editors to attrition since 2007, and the documented trend rate indicates the loss of another 20,000 editors by 2021, down to 10,000 active editors on English Wikipedia by 2021 if left unabated.[141] Given that the trend analysis published in The Economist presents the number of active editors for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as remaining relatively constant and successful in sustaining its numbers at approximately 42,000 active editors, the contrast has pointed to the effectiveness of Wikipedia in other languages to retain its active editors on a renewable and sustained basis.[141] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[142] Critical reception See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia Ambox current red.svg This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2018) Several Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes over 50 policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[143][144] Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black criticized Wikipedia for being a mixture of "truth, half truth, and some falsehoods".[20] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's Undue Weight policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject and give less attention to minor ones, creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[145][146][147] Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black noted (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) how articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[20][148] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[21] In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[149] Accuracy of content Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are carefully and deliberately written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[150] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[18] Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[151] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[152][153] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[154] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[155] As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[156] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[157] the insertion of false information,[158] vandalism, and similar problems. Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true, after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles and relevant information is omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites, and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[159] Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[160] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[161] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[162] External video Inside Wikipedia – Attack of the PR Industry, Deutsche Welle, 7:13 mins[163] Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[72][164] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article by Jeff Elder in The Wall Street Journal on June 16, 2014, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[165] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from date of article], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[165][166][167][168][169] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[170] A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[171] Discouragement in education Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[172] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations.[173][174] Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[175] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia", he said.[176] In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[177] In June 2007, former president of the American Library Association Michael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[178] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything". Medical information See also: Health information on Wikipedia On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[179] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Dr. Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by Dr. James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer review evaluation process.[179] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes Wikiproject Medicine's Dr. James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[180] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured.' Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than 1 percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed.[180] Quality of writing In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[181] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[182] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization [...] his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice [...] and [...] his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". By example, he quoted the conclusion of Wikipedia's article on William Clarke Quantrill. While generally praising the article, he pointed out its "waffling" conclusion: "Some historians [...] remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[182] Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 per cent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[183] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[184] The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[185] Coverage of topics and systemic bias See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage Ambox current red.svg Parts of this article (those related to d:Wikidata:Statistics/Wikipedia) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017) Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[186] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[187][188] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic because Wikipedia is not censored. The policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China,[189] and Pakistan[190] amongst other countries. Pie chart of Wikipedia content by subject as of January 2008[191] A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[191] Culture and the arts: 30% (210%) Biographies and persons: 15% (97%) Geography and places: 14% (52%) Society and social sciences: 12% (83%) History and events: 11% (143%) Natural and physical sciences: 9% (213%) Technology and the applied sciences: 4% (?6%) Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%) Health: 2% (42%) Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%) Thought and philosophy: 1% (160%) These numbers refer only to the quantity of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[192] A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the People and Arts category, while males focus more on Geography and Science.[193] Coverage of topics and selection bias Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is most underrepresented.[194] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[195] An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 noted that women porn stars are better covered than women writers as a further example.[196] Systemic bias When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales noted that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, which predominantly consists of young males with high education levels in the developed world (cf. previously).[48] The October 22, 2013 essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49] Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally, for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[197] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to being young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases of its own may include over-emphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[197] Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[198][199] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, Anarchism and Muhammad.[199] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering (i) Croatia, (ii) Scientology and (iii) 9/11 conspiracy theories.[199] Researchers from the Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[200][201] Identifying the filter-bubble problem Dimitra Kessenides, writing for Bloomberg News Weekly, identified the 'filter-bubble' problem as a recurrent and long-standing issue at Wikipedia.[202] As Kessenides states: "If the only way to get an article about the developing world published on Wikipedia was to know a former board member, it was hard to imagine how a random editor in Johannesburg or Bangalore would have any hope... This so-called filter-bubble problem, coined by Eli Pariser, co-founder of the viral video site Upworthy, is the idea that the internet can contribute to the insularity of certain communities. Filter bubbles have been blamed for the spread of misinformation during the 2016 presidential election and for the failure of pundits in the U.K. to anticipate Brexit... Wikipedia's filter-bubble problem is a particularly acute threat for an organization whose stated mission is 'to empower and engage people around the world.'"[202] Explicit content See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information of graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as Feces, Cadaver, Human penis, Vulva, and Nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children. The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children. The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from German heavy metal band Scorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[203] In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[204][205] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[206] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[206] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[207] Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[208] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[208] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[209] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[210] Privacy One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[211][notes 8] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of an individual who is relatively unimportant and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes. In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[212] Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses the OTRS system to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[213] Sexism Main article: Gender bias in Wikipedia Wikipedia has been described as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[214][215] The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language are also reasons put forth for the gender gap in Wikipedia editors.[216] In 2014, a female editor who requested a separate space on Wikipedia to discuss improving civility had her proposal referred to by a male editor using the words "the easiest way to avoid being called a cunt is not to act like one".[214] Operation A group of Wikipedia editors may form a WikiProject to focus their work on a specific topic area, using its associated discussion page to coordinate changes across multiple articles.[217] Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates Main article: Wikimedia Foundation Katherine Maher is the third executive director at Wikimedia, following the departure of Lila Tretikov in 2016. Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[218] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[219] In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[220] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[221][222] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency... We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities, Walsh said."[221] Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[223] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority... (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[224] Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia. Software operations and support See also: MediaWiki The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open source wiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[225] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker. Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[226] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software. In April 2005, a Lucene extension[227][228] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. The site currently uses Lucene Search 2.1,[229][needs update] which is written in Java and based on Lucene library 2.3.[230] In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[231][232][233][234] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[235] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward. Automated editing Computer programs called bots have been used widely to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[236][237][238] One controversial contributor massively creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to ten thousand articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[239] There are also some bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parenthesis).[240] Edits misidentified by a bot as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot tries to detect and revert vandalism quickly and automatically.[237] Bots can also report edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as was done at the time of the MH17 jet downing incident in July 2014.[241] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved prior to activation.[242] According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[243] Wikiprojects, and assessments of articles' importance and quality This section is transcluded from English Wikipedia. (edit | history) Main article: WikiProject A "WikiProject" is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia. These groups often focus on a specific topic area (for example, women's history), a specific location or a specific kind of task (for example, checking newly created pages). The English Wikipedia currently has over 2,000 WikiProjects and activity varies.[244] In 2007, in preparation for producing a print version, the English Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles.[245] Articles are rated by WikiProjects. The range of quality classes begins with "Stub" (very short pages), followed by "Start", "C" and "B" (in increasing order of quality). Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: either "good article", "A" or the highest, "featured article". Of the about 4.4 million articles and lists assessed as of March 2015, a little more than 5,000 (0.12%) are featured articles, and fewer than 2,000 (0.04%) are featured lists. One featured article per day, as selected by editors, appears on the main page of Wikipedia.[246][247] The articles can also be rated as per "importance" as judged by a WikiProject. Currently, there are 5 importance categories: "low", "mid", "high", "top", and "???" for unclassified/uncertain level. For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels. The Wikipedia Version 1.0 Editorial Team has developed a table (shown below) that displays data of all rated articles by quality and importance, on the English Wikipedia. If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more WikiProjects, then the highest rating is used in the table, pie-charts, and bar-chart. The software regularly auto-updates the data. Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach featured status via the intensive work of a few editors.[248] A 2010 study found unevenness in quality among featured articles and concluded that the community process is ineffective in assessing the quality of articles.[249] Quality-wise distribution of over 5.5 million articles and lists on the English Wikipedia, as of 29 January 2017[250] Featured articles (0.11%) Featured lists (0.04%) A class (0.03%) Good articles (0.50%) B class (2.00%) C class (4.32%) Start class (26.41%) Stub class (53.01%) Lists (3.65%) Unassessed (9.94%) Importance-wise distribution of over 5.5 million articles and lists on the English Wikipedia, as of 29 January 2017[250] Top (0.91%) High (3.20%) Medium (12.21%) Low (51.68%) ??? (32.00%) All rated articles by quality and importance Quality Importance Top High Mid Low ??? Total Featured article FA 1,254 1,918 1,817 1,199 196 6,384 Featured list FL 148 590 683 603 127 2,151 A-Class article A 244 452 616 395 85 1,792 GA 2,247 5,124 9,959 11,212 1,794 30,336 B 12,549 23,888 36,683 30,755 15,036 118,911 C 11,071 32,751 73,256 104,700 47,754 269,532 Start 17,716 79,755 323,038 881,293 314,655 1,616,457 Stub 4,251 31,157 237,131 2,009,997 855,023 3,137,559 List 3,230 12,036 37,410 103,145 62,640 218,461 Assessed 52,710 187,671 720,593 3,143,299 1,297,310 5,401,583 Unassessed 125 449 1,811 16,449 556,957 575,791 Total 52,835 188,120 722,404 3,159,748 1,854,267 5,977,374 500,0001,000,0001,500,0002,000,0002,500,0003,000,000TopHighMediumLow??? Featured articles Featured lists A-class articles Good articles B-class articles C-class articles Start-class articles Stub articles Lists Unassessed articles and lists [Note: The table above (prepared by the Wikipedia Version 1.0 Editorial Team) is automatically updated daily by User:WP 1.0 bot, but the bar-chart and the two pie-charts are not auto-updated. In them, new data has to be entered by a Wikipedia editor (i.e. user).] Hardware operations and support Ambox current red.svg This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017) See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000 page requests per second, depending on time of day.[251] As of 2008 page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Squid caching servers.[252][needs update] Further statistics, based on a publicly available 3-month Wikipedia access trace, are available.[253] Requests that cannot be served from the Squid cache are sent to load-balancing servers running the Linux Virtual Server software, which in turn pass them to one of the Apache web servers for page rendering from the database. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia. To increase speed further, rendered pages are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses. Diagram showing flow of data between Wikipedia's servers. Twenty database servers talk to hundreds of Apache servers in the backend; the Apache servers talk to fifty squids in the frontend. Overview of system architecture as of December 2010 Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers (mainly Ubuntu).[254][255] As of December 2009, there were 300 in Florida and 44 in Amsterdam.[256] By January 22, 2013, Wikipedia had migrated its primary data center to an Equinix facility in Ashburn, Virginia.[257][258] Internal research and operational development In accordance with growing amounts of incoming donations exceeding seven digits in 2013 as recently reported,[49] the Foundation has reached a threshold of assets which qualify its consideration under the principles of industrial organization economics to indicate the need for the re-investment of donations into the internal research and development of the Foundation.[259] Two of the recent projects of such internal research and development have been the creation of a Visual Editor and a largely under-utilized "Thank" tab which were developed for the purpose of ameliorating issues of editor attrition, which have met with limited success.[49][235] The estimates for reinvestment by industrial organizations into internal research and development was studied by Adam Jaffe, who recorded that the range of 4% to 25% annually was to be recommended, with high end technology requiring the higher level of support for internal reinvestment.[260] At the 2013 level of contributions for Wikimedia presently documented as 45 million dollars, the computed budget level recommended by Jaffe and Caballero for reinvestment into internal research and development is between 1.8 million and 11.3 million dollars annually.[260] In 2016, the level of contributions were reported by Bloomberg News as being at $77 million annually, updating the Jaffe estimates for the higher level of support to between $3.08 million and $19.2 million annually.[260] Internal news publications Community-produced news publications include the English Wikipedia's The Signpost, founded in 2005 by Michael Snow, an attorney, Wikipedia administrator and former chair of the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees.[261] It covers news and events from the site, as well as major events from other Wikimedia projects, such as Wikimedia Commons. Similar publications are the German-language Kurier, and the Portuguese-language Correio da Wikipédia. Other past and present community news publications on English Wikipedia include the "Wikiworld" web comic, the Wikipedia Weekly podcast, and newsletters of specific WikiProjects like The Bugle from WikiProject Military History and the monthly newsletter from The Guild of Copy Editors. There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education. Access to content Content licensing When the project was started in 2001, all text in Wikipedia was covered by the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL), a copyleft license permitting the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work.[262] The GFDL was created for software manuals that come with free software programs licensed under the GPL. This made it a poor choice for a general reference work: for example, the GFDL requires the reprints of materials from Wikipedia to come with a full copy of the GFDL text. In December 2002, the Creative Commons license was released: it was specifically designed for creative works in general, not just for software manuals. The license gained popularity among bloggers and others distributing creative works on the Web. The Wikipedia project sought the switch to the Creative Commons.[263] Because the two licenses, GFDL and Creative Commons, were incompatible, in November 2008, following the request of the project, the Free Software Foundation (FSF) released a new version of the GFDL designed specifically to allow Wikipedia to relicense its content to CC BY-SA by August 1, 2009. (A new version of the GFDL automatically covers Wikipedia contents.) In April 2009, Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June 2009.[264][265][266][267] The handling of media files (e.g. image files) varies across language editions. Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use doctrine, while the others have opted not to, in part because of the lack of fair use doctrines in their home countries (e.g. in Japanese copyright law). Media files covered by free content licenses (e.g. Creative Commons' CC BY-SA) are shared across language editions via Wikimedia Commons repository, a project operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikipedia's accommodation of varying international copyright laws regarding images has led some to observe that its photographic coverage of topics lags behind the quality of the encyclopedic text.[268] The Wikimedia Foundation is not a licensor of content, but merely a hosting service for the contributors (and licensors) of the Wikipedia. This position has been successfully defended in court.[269][270] Methods of access Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license, anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge. The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, outside of the Wikipedia website. Websites – Thousands of "mirror sites" exist that republish content from Wikipedia: two prominent ones, that also include content from other reference sources, are Reference.com and Answers.com. Another example is Wapedia, which began to display Wikipedia content in a mobile-device-friendly format before Wikipedia itself did. Mobile apps – A variety of mobile apps provide access to Wikipedia on hand-held devices, including both Android and iOS devices (see Wikipedia apps). (See also Mobile access.) Search engines – Some web search engines make special use of Wikipedia content when displaying search results: examples include Bing (via technology gained from Powerset)[271] and DuckDuckGo. Compact discs, DVDs – Collections of Wikipedia articles have been published on optical discs. An English version, 2006 Wikipedia CD Selection, contained about 2,000 articles.[272][273] The Polish-language version contains nearly 240,000 articles.[274] There are German- and Spanish-language versions as well.[275][276] Also, "Wikipedia for Schools", the Wikipedia series of CDs / DVDs produced by Wikipedians and SOS Children, is a free, hand-checked, non-commercial selection from Wikipedia targeted around the UK National Curriculum and intended to be useful for much of the English-speaking world.[277] The project is available online; an equivalent print encyclopedia would require roughly 20 volumes. Printed books – There are efforts to put a select subset of Wikipedia's articles into printed book form.[278][279] Since 2009, tens of thousands of print-on-demand books that reproduced English, German, Russian and French Wikipedia articles have been produced by the American company Books LLC and by three Mauritian subsidiaries of the German publisher VDM.[280] Semantic Web – The website DBpedia, begun in 2007, extracts data from the infoboxes and category declarations of the English-language Wikipedia. Wikimedia has created the Wikidata project with a similar objective of storing the basic facts from each page of Wikipedia and the other WMF wikis and make it available in a queriable semantic format, RDF. This is still under development. As of Feb 2014 it has 15,000,000 items and 1,000 properties for describing them. Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges, since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged.[281] Wikipedia publishes "dumps" of its contents, but these are text-only; as of 2007 there was no dump available of Wikipedia's images.[282] Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk, where volunteers answer questions from the general public. According to a study by Pnina Shachaf in the Journal of Documentation, the quality of the Wikipedia reference desk is comparable to a standard library reference desk, with an accuracy of 55%.[283] Mobile access See also: Help:Mobile access The mobile version of the English Wikipedia's main page Wikipedia's original medium was for users to read and edit content using any standard web browser through a fixed Internet connection. Although Wikipedia content has been accessible through the mobile web since July 2013, The New York Times on February 9, 2014, quoted Erik Möller, deputy director of the Wikimedia Foundation, stating that the transition of internet traffic from desktops to mobile devices was significant and a cause for concern and worry.[15] The article in The New York Times reported the comparison statistics for mobile edits stating that, "Only 20 percent of the readership of the English-language Wikipedia comes via mobile devices, a figure substantially lower than the percentage of mobile traffic for other media sites, many of which approach 50 percent. And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even more."[15] The New York Times reports that Möller has assigned "a team of 10 software developers focused on mobile", out of a total of approximately 200 employees working at the Wikimedia Foundation. One principal concern cited by The New York Times for the "worry" is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment.[15] Bloomberg Businessweek reported in July 2014 that Google's Android mobile apps have dominated the largest share of global smartphone shipments for 2013 with 78.6% of market share over their next closest competitor in iOS with 15.2% of the market.[284] At the time of the Tretikov appointment and her posted web interview with Sue Gardner in May 2014, Wikimedia representatives made a technical announcement concerning the number of mobile access systems in the market seeking access to Wikipedia. Directly after the posted web interview, the representatives stated that Wikimedia would be applying an all-inclusive approach to accommodate as many mobile access systems as possible in its efforts for expanding general mobile access, including BlackBerry and the Windows Phone system, making market share a secondary issue.[222] The latest version of the Android app for Wikipedia was released on July 23, 2014, to generally positive reviews, scoring over four of a possible five in a poll of approximately 200,000 users downloading from Google.[285] The latest version for iOS was released on April 3, 2013, to similar reviews.[286] Access to Wikipedia from mobile phones was possible as early as 2004, through the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), via the Wapedia service. In June 2007 Wikipedia launched en.mobile.wikipedia.org, an official website for wireless devices. In 2009 a newer mobile service was officially released,[287] located at en.m.wikipedia.org, which caters to more advanced mobile devices such as the iPhone, Android-based devices or WebOS-based devices. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged. Many devices and applications optimize or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata (See Wikipedia:Metadata), such as geoinformation.[288][289] Wikipedia Zero is an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries.[290] Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smart phones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors. Several years running the number of Wikipedia editors has been falling and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this. Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo.[49] Lih alleges there is serious disagreement among existing contributors how to resolve this. Lih fears for Wikipedia's long term future while Brown fears problems with Wikipedia will remain and rival encyclopedias will not replace it.[291][292] Cultural impact Trusted source to combat fake news In 2017-18, after a barrage of false news reports, both Facebook and YouTube announced they would rely on Wikipedia to help their users evaluate reports and reject false news. Noam Cohen, writing in the Washington Post states, "YouTube’s reliance on Wikipedia to set the record straight builds on the thinking of another fact-challenged platform, the Facebook social network, which announced last year that Wikipedia would help its users root out 'fake news'."[22] Readership Wikipedia is extremely popular. In February 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites, stating "With 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month [...] Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google, the largest with 1.2 billion unique visitors."[15] In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles,[293] Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in 2001.[294] About 50% of search engine traffic to Wikipedia comes from Google,[295] a good portion of which is related to academic research.[296] The number of readers of Wikipedia worldwide reached 365 million at the end of 2009.[297] The Pew Internet and American Life project found that one third of US Internet users consulted Wikipedia.[298] In 2011 Business Insider gave Wikipedia a valuation of $4 billion if it ran advertisements.[299] According to "Wikipedia Readership Survey 2011", the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders. Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results. About 47% of Wikipedia readers do not realize that Wikipedia is a non-profit organization.[300] Cultural significance Main article: Wikipedia in culture Wikipedia Monument in S?ubice, Poland Wikipedia's content has also been used in academic studies, books, conferences, and court cases.[301][302][303] The Parliament of Canada's website refers to Wikipedia's article on same-sex marriage in the "related links" section of its "further reading" list for the Civil Marriage Act.[304] The encyclopedia's assertions are increasingly used as a source by organizations such as the US federal courts and the World Intellectual Property Organization[305] – though mainly for supporting information rather than information decisive to a case.[306] Content appearing on Wikipedia has also been cited as a source and referenced in some US intelligence agency reports.[307] In December 2008, the scientific journal RNA Biology launched a new section for descriptions of families of RNA molecules and requires authors who contribute to the section to also submit a draft article on the RNA family for publication in Wikipedia.[308] Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism,[309][310] often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia.[311][312][313] In 2006, Time magazine recognized Wikipedia's participation (along with YouTube, Reddit, MySpace, and Facebook[314]) in the rapid growth of online collaboration and interaction by millions of people worldwide. In July 2007 Wikipedia was the focus of a 30-minute documentary on BBC Radio 4[315] which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the word is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar (Google, Facebook, YouTube) that they no longer need explanation. On September 28, 2007, Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama. He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, "the seventh most consulted website", to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues.[316] File:Wikipedia, an introduction - Erasmus Prize 2015.webm Wikipedia, an introduction – Erasmus Prize 2015 Jimmy Wales receiving the Quadriga A Mission of Enlightenment award On September 16, 2007, The Washington Post reported that Wikipedia had become a focal point in the 2008 US election campaign, saying: "Type a candidate's name into Google, and among the first results is a Wikipedia page, making those entries arguably as important as any ad in defining a candidate. Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day."[317] An October 2007 Reuters article, titled "Wikipedia page the latest status symbol", reported the recent phenomenon of how having a Wikipedia article vindicates one's notability.[318] Active participation also has an impact. Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience.[319] A working group led by Peter Stone (formed as a part of the Stanford-based project One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence) in its report called Wikipedia "the best-known example of crowdsourcing... that far exceeds traditionally-compiled information sources, such as encyclopedias and dictionaries, in scale and depth."[320] Awards Wikipedia team visiting to Parliament of Asturias Wikipedians meeting after the Asturias awards ceremony Wikipedia won two major awards in May 2004.[321] The first was a Golden Nica for Digital Communities of the annual Prix Ars Electronica contest; this came with a €10,000 (£6,588; $12,700) grant and an invitation to present at the PAE Cyberarts Festival in Austria later that year. The second was a Judges' Webby Award for the "community" category.[322] Wikipedia was also nominated for a "Best Practices" Webby award. In 2007, readers of brandchannel.com voted Wikipedia as the fourth-highest brand ranking, receiving 15% of the votes in answer to the question "Which brand had the most impact on our lives in 2006?"[323] In September 2008, Wikipedia received Quadriga A Mission of Enlightenment award of Werkstatt Deutschland along with Boris Tadi?, Eckart Höfling, and Peter Gabriel. The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger.[324] In 2015, Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize, which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture, society or social sciences,[325] and the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International Cooperation.[326] Speaking at the Asturian Parliament in Oviedo, the city that hosts the awards ceremony, Jimmy Wales praised the work of the Asturian language Wikipedia users.[327] The night of the ceremony, members of the Wikimedia Foundation held a meeting with Wikipedians from all parts of Spain, including the local Asturian community. Satire See also: Category:Parodies of Wikipedia. Many parodies target Wikipedia's openness and susceptibility to inserted inaccuracies, with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project's articles. Comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality, meaning "together we can create a reality that we all agree on—the reality we just agreed on".[170] Another example can be found in "Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years of American Independence", a July 2006 front-page article in The Onion,[328] as well as the 2010 The Onion article "'L.A. Law' Wikipedia Page Viewed 874 Times Today".[329] In an episode of the television comedy The Office U.S., which aired in April 2007, an incompetent office manager (Michael Scott) is shown relying on a hypothetical Wikipedia article for information on negotiation tactics in order to assist him in negotiating lesser pay for an employee.[330] The tactics he used failed, as a joke about the unreliability of Wikipedia and what anyone can do to change its contents. Viewers of the show tried to add the episode's mention of the page as a section of the actual Wikipedia article on negotiation, but this effort was prevented by other users on the article's talk page.[331] "My Number One Doctor", a 2007 episode of the television show Scrubs, played on the perception that Wikipedia is an unreliable reference tool with a scene in which Dr. Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says that a Wikipedia article indicates that the raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting that the same editor who wrote that article also wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide.[332] In 2008, the comedic website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named "Professor Wikipedia", in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia instructs a class with a medley of unverifiable and occasionally absurd statements.[333] The Dilbert comic strip from May 8, 2009, features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying "Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia."[334] In July 2009, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a comedy series called Bigipedia, which was set on a website which was a parody of Wikipedia. Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles.[335] In 2010, comedian Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[336][337] On August 23, 2013, the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: "Dammit, Manning, have you considered the pronoun war that this is going to start on your Wikipedia page?"[338] The cartoon referred to Chelsea Elizabeth Manning (born Bradley Edward Manning), an American activist, politician, and former United States Army soldier and a trans woman. In December 2015, John Julius Norwich stated, in a letter published in The Times newspaper, that as an historian he resorted to Wikipedia "at least a dozen times a day", and had never yet caught it out. He described it as "a work of reference as useful as any in existence", with so wide a range that it is almost impossible to find a person, place or thing that it has left uncovered, and that he could never have written his last two books without it.[339][340] Sister projects – Wikimedia Main article: Wikimedia project Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation. These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary, a dictionary project launched in December 2002,[341] Wikiquote, a collection of quotations created a week after Wikimedia launched, Wikibooks, a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts, Wikimedia Commons, a site devoted to free-knowledge multimedia, Wikinews, for citizen journalism, and Wikiversity, a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.[342] Another sister project of Wikipedia, Wikispecies, is a catalogue of species. In 2012 Wikivoyage, an editable travel guide, and Wikidata, an editable knowledge base, launched. Publishing A group of Wikimedians of the Wikimedia DC chapter at the 2013 DC Wikimedia annual meeting standing in front of the Encyclopædia Britannica (back left) at the US National Archives The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been the death of commercial encyclopedias, especially the printed versions, e.g. Encyclopædia Britannica, which were unable to compete with a product that is essentially free.[343][344][345] Nicholas Carr wrote a 2005 essay, "The amorality of Web 2.0", that criticized websites with user-generated content, like Wikipedia, for possibly leading to professional (and, in his view, superior) content producers' going out of business, because "free trumps quality all the time". Carr wrote: "Implicit in the ecstatic visions of Web 2.0 is the hegemony of the amateur. I for one can't imagine anything more frightening."[346] Others dispute the notion that Wikipedia, or similar efforts, will entirely displace traditional publications. For instance, Chris Anderson, the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine, wrote in Nature that the "wisdom of crowds" approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals, with their rigorous peer review process.[347] There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. "The worry is that, if you can get all that information from Wikipedia, what's left for biography?" said Kathryn Hughes, professor of life writing at UEA and author of The Short Life and Long Times of Mrs Beeton and George Eliot: the Last Victorian.[348] Scientific use Main article: Science information on Wikipedia Wikipedia has seen been widely used as a corpus for linguistic research in computational linguistics, information retrieval and natural language processing. In particular, it commonly serves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem, which is then called "wikification",[349] and to the related problem of word sense disambiguation.[350] Methods similar to wikification can in turn be used to find "missing" links in Wikipedia.[351] In 2015, French researchers Dr José Lages of the University of Franche-Comté in Besançon and Dima Shepelyansky of Paul Sabatier University in Toulouse published a global university ranking based on Wikipedia scholarly citations.[352][353][354] They used PageRank "followed by the number of appearances in the 24 different language editions of Wikipedia (descending order) and the century in which they were founded (ascending order)."[354] A 2017 MIT study suggests that words used on Wikipedia articles end up in scientific publications.[355][356] Related projects A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded. The first of these was the 1986 BBC Domesday Project, which included text (entered on BBC Micro computers) and photographs from over 1 million contributors in the UK, and covered the geography, art, and culture of the UK. This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia (and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links), with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK. The user interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until 2008.[357] Several free-content, collaborative encyclopedias were created around the same period as Wikipedia (e.g. Everything2),[358] with many later being merged into the project (e.g. GNE).[359] One of the most successful early online encyclopedias incorporating entries by the public was h2g2, which was created by Douglas Adams in 1999. The h2g2 encyclopedia is relatively light-hearted, focusing on articles which are both witty and informative. Subsequent collaborative knowledge websites have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning.nu, Enciclopedia Libre, Hudong, and Baidu Baike likewise employ no formal review process, although some like Conservapedia are not as open. Others use more traditional peer review, such as Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium. The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to Wikipedia.[360][361] See also icon Internet portal Outline of Wikipedia – guide to the subject of Wikipedia presented as a tree structured list of its subtopics; for an outline of the contents of Wikipedia, see Portal:Contents/Outlines Conflict-of-interest editing on Wikipedia Democratization of knowledge Interpedia, an early proposal for a collaborative Internet encyclopedia List of Internet encyclopedias List of Wikipedia controversies Network effect Print Wikipedia art project to visualize how big Wikipedia is. In cooperation with Wikimedia foundation. QRpedia – multilingual, mobile interface to Wikipedia Wikipedia Review Notes Registration is required for certain tasks such as editing protected pages, creating pages in the English Wikipedia, and uploading files. For a user to be considered active in a given month, one or more actions have had to have been made in said month. Wikis are a type of website. The word "wiki" itself is from the Hawaiian word for "quick".[13] As of 19:06, Wednesday, April 18, 2018 (UTC) The procrastination principle dictates that you should wait for problems to arise before solving them. Revisions with libelous content, criminal threats, or copyright infringements may be removed completely. See for example the Biographies of Living Persons Noticeboard or Neutral Point of View Noticeboard, created to address content falling under their respective areas. See "Libel" by David McHam for the legal distinction References Sidener, Jonathan (December 6, 2004). 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Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved January 19, 2012. Jeff Loveland and Joseph Reagle (January 15, 2013). "Wikipedia and encyclopedic production. New Media & Society. Sage Journals". New Media & Society. 15 (8): 1294. doi:10.1177/1461444812470428. Rebecca J. Rosen (January 30, 2013). "What If the Great Wikipedia 'Revolution' Was Actually a Reversion? • The Atlantic". Retrieved February 9, 2013. Varma, Subodh (January 20, 2014). "Google eating into Wikipedia page views?". The Economic Times. Times Internet Limited. Retrieved February 10, 2014. "Alexa Top 500 Global Sites". Alexa Internet. Retrieved December 28, 2016. "Wikipedia Statistics (English)". stats.wikimedia.org. Zittrain, Jonathan (2008). The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It – Chapter 6: The Lessons of Wikipedia. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12487-3. Archived from the original on February 16, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2008. Registration notes Protection Policy Hafner, Katie (June 17, 2006). "Growing Wikipedia Refines Its 'Anyone Can Edit' Policy". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2016. English Wikipedia's protection policy English Wikipedia's full protection policy Birken, P. (December 14, 2008). "Bericht Gesichtete Versionen". Wikide-l (Mailing list) (in German). Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved February 15, 2009. William Henderson (December 10, 2012). "Wikipedia Has Figured Out A New Way To Stop Vandals In Their Tracks". Business Insider. Frewin, Jonathan (June 15, 2010). "Wikipedia unlocks divisive pages for editing". BBC News. Retrieved August 21, 2014. Kleinz, Torsten (February 2005). "World of Knowledge" (PDF). Linux Magazine. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2007. Retrieved July 13, 2007. The Wikipedia's open structure makes it a target for trolls and vandals who malevolently add incorrect information to articles, get other people tied up in endless discussions, and generally do everything to draw attention to themselves. Wikipedia:New pages patrol Andrea Ciffolilli, "Phantom authority, self-selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia" Archived December 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., First Monday December 2003. West, Andrew G.; Chang, Jian; Venkatasubramanian, Krishna; Sokolsky, Oleg; Lee, Insup (2011). Link Spamming Wikipedia for Profit. 8th Annual Collaboration, Electronic Messaging, Anti-Abuse, and Spam Conference. pp. 152–161. doi:10.1145/2030376.2030394. Vandalism. Wikipedia. Retrieved November 6, 2012. Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg; Kushal Dave (2004). "Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with History Flow Visualizations" (PDF). Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI). Vienna, Austria: ACM SIGCHI: 575–582. doi:10.1145/985921.985953. ISBN 1-58113-702-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2006. Retrieved January 24, 2007. Reid Priedhorsky; Jilin Chen; Shyong (Tony) K. Lam; Katherine Panciera; Loren Terveen; John Riedl (November 4, 2007). "Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia" (PDF). Association for Computing Machinery GROUP '07 conference proceedings; GroupLens Research, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. Sanibel Island, Florida. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 13, 2007. Seigenthaler, John (November 29, 2005). "A False Wikipedia 'biography'". USA Today. Retrieved December 26, 2008. Friedman, Thomas L. (2007). The World is Flat. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-374-29278-2. Buchanan, Brian (November 17, 2006). "Founder shares cautionary tale of libel in cyberspace". archive.firstamendmentcenter.org. Archived from the original on December 21, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012. Helm, Burt (December 13, 2005). "Wikipedia: "A Work in Progress"". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 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As a community, far from being elitist, it is anti-elitist (which, in this context, means that expertise is not accorded any special respect, and snubs and disrespect of expertise is tolerated). This is one of my failures: a policy that I attempted to institute in Wikipedia's first year, but for which I did not muster adequate support, was the policy of respecting and deferring politely to experts. (Those who were there will, I hope, remember that I tried very hard.) T. Kriplean, I. Beschastnikh, et al. (2008). "Articulations of wikiwork: uncovering valued work in Wikipedia through barnstars". Proceedings of the ACM: 47. doi:10.1145/1460563.1460573. ISBN 978-1-60558-007-4. (Subscription required.) Jean Goodwin (2009). "The Authority of Wikipedia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 22, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011. Wikipedia's commitment to anonymity/pseudonymity thus imposes a sort of epistemic agnosticism on its readers Kittur, Aniket. 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Brockhaus had been publishing reference books for two centuries when the media group bought it in 2008. [...] The internet has finished off Brockhaus altogether. [...] What Germans like is Wikipedia. "The amorality of Web 2.0". Rough Type. October 3, 2005. Retrieved July 15, 2006. "Technical solutions: Wisdom of the crowds". Nature. Retrieved October 10, 2006. Alison Flood. "Alison Flood: Should traditional biography be buried alongside Shakespeare's breakfast?". The Guardian. Retrieved June 14, 2014. Rada Mihalcea and Andras Csomai (2007). Wikify! Linking Documents to Encyclopedic Knowledge Archived February 18, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Proc. CIKM. David Milne and Ian H. Witten (2008). Learning to link with Wikipedia. Proc. CIKM. Sisay Fissaha Adafre and [Maarten de Rijke] (2005). Discovering missing links in Wikipedia Archived July 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Proc. LinkKDD. "Wikipedia-Mining Algorithm Reveals World's Most Influential Universities: An algorithm's list of the most influential universities contains some surprising entries". MIT Technology Review. December 7, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015. Marmow Shaw, Jessica (December 10, 2015). "Harvard is only the 3rd most influential university in the world, according to this list". MarketWatch. Retrieved December 27, 2015. Bothwell, Ellie (December 15, 2015). "Wikipedia Ranking of World Universities: the top 100. List ranks institutions by search engine results and Wikipedia appearances". Times Higher Education. Retrieved December 27, 2015. Wikipedia has become a science reference source even though scientists don’t cite it Science News, 2018 Science Is Shaped by Wikipedia: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial SSRN, 2017 Heart Internet. "Website discussing the emulator of the Domesday Project User Interface". Retrieved September 9, 2014. Frauenfelder, Mark (November 21, 2000). "The next generation of online encyclopedias". CNN.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2004. The Free Encyclopedia Project gnu.org ( Archived January 3, 2012, at WebCite) Orlowski, Andrew (September 18, 2006). "Wikipedia founder forks Wikipedia, More experts, less fiddling?". The Register. Retrieved June 27, 2007. Larry Sanger describes the Citizendium project as a "progressive or gradual fork", with the major difference that experts have the final say over edits. Lyman, Jay (September 20, 2006). "Wikipedia Co-Founder Planning New Expert-Authored Site". LinuxInsider. Retrieved June 27, 2007. Further reading Academic studies Main article: Academic studies about Wikipedia Leitch, Thomas. Wikipedia U: Knowledge, authority, and a liberal education in the digital age (2014) Jensen, Richard. "Military History on the Electronic Frontier: Wikipedia Fights the War of 1812", The Journal of Military History 76#4 (October 2012): 523–556; online version. Yasseri, Taha; Robert Sumi; János Kertész (2012). Szolnoki, Attila, ed. "Circadian Patterns of Wikipedia Editorial Activity: A Demographic Analysis". PLoS ONE. 7 (1): e30091. arXiv:1109.1746?Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...7E0091Y. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030091. PMC 3260192?Freely accessible. PMID 22272279. Goldman, Eric (2010). "Wikipedia's Labor Squeeze and its Consequences". Journal of Telecommunications and High Technology Law. 8. SSRN 1458162?Freely accessible. (A blog post by the author.) Nielsen, Finn (August 2007). "Scientific Citations in Wikipedia". First Monday. 12 (8). doi:10.5210/fm.v12i8.1997. Retrieved February 22, 2008. Pfeil, Ulrike; Panayiotis Zaphiris; Chee Siang Ang (2006). "Cultural Differences in Collaborative Authoring of Wikipedia". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 12 (1): 88. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00316.x. Retrieved December 26, 2008. Priedhorsky, Reid, Jilin Chen, Shyong (Tony) K. Lam, Katherine Panciera, Loren Terveen, and John Riedl. "Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia". Proc. GROUP 2007; doi:10.1145/1316624.1316663 Reagle, Joseph (2007). Do as I Do: Authorial Leadership in Wikipedia (PDF). WikiSym '07: Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis. Montreal, Canada: ACM. Retrieved December 26, 2008. Rosenzweig, Roy. Can History be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past. (Originally published in The Journal of American History 93.1 (June 2006): 117–46.) Wilkinson, Dennis M.; Bernardo A. Huberman (April 2007). "Assessing the Value of Cooperation in Wikipedia". First Monday. 12 (4). doi:10.5210/fm.v12i4.1763. Retrieved February 22, 2008. Aaron Halfaker; R. Stuart Geiger; Jonathan T. Morgan; John Riedl (2012). "The Rise and Decline of an Open Collaboration Community". American Behavioral Scientist. 57 (5): 664. doi:10.1177/0002764212469365. Retrieved August 30, 2012. Books Main article: List of books about Wikipedia Ayers, Phoebe; Matthews, Charles; Yates, Ben (September 2008). How Wikipedia Works: And How You Can Be a Part of It. San Francisco: No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3. Broughton, John (2008). Wikipedia – The Missing Manual. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-51516-2. (See book review by Baker, as listed hereafter.) Broughton, John (2008). Wikipedia Reader's Guide. Sebastopol: Pogue Press. ISBN 0-596-52174-X. Dalby, Andrew (2009). The World and Wikipedia: How We are Editing Reality. Siduri. ISBN 978-0-9562052-0-9. Jemielniak, Dariusz (2014). Common Knowledge? An Ethnography of Wikipedia. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804789448. Keen, Andrew (2007). The Cult of the Amateur. Doubleday/Currency. ISBN 978-0-385-52080-5. (Substantial criticisms of Wikipedia and other web 2.0 projects.) Listen to: Keen, Andrew (June 16, 2007). "Does the Internet Undermine Culture?". National Public Radio, USA. The NPR interview with A. Keen, Weekend Edition Saturday, June 16, 2007. Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0371-6. O'Sullivan, Dan (September 24, 2009). Wikipedia: a new community of practice?. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-7433-7. Sheizaf Rafaeli & Yaron Ariel (2008). "Online motivational factors: Incentives for participation and contribution in Wikipedia." In Barak, A. Psychological aspects of cyberspace: Theory, research, applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 243–267. Reagle, Joseph Michael Jr. (2010). Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: the MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-01447-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015. Wells, Herbert George. (2013). World Brain. New Delhi, India: Isha Books (reprint). ISBN 978-9-333-39061-3. Book reviews and other article Baker, Nicholson. "The Charms of Wikipedia". The New York Review of Books, March 20, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2008. (Book rev. of The Missing Manual, by John Broughton, as listed previously.) Crovitz, L. Gordon. "Wikipedia's Old-Fashioned Revolution: The online encyclopedia is fast becoming the best." (Originally published in Wall Street Journal online – April 6, 2009.) Postrel, Virginia, "Who Killed Wikipedia? : A hardened corps of volunteer editors is the only force protecting Wikipedia. They might also be killing it", Pacific Standard magazine, November/December 2014 issue. Learning resources Wikiversity list of learning resources. (Includes related courses, Web-based seminars, slides, lecture notes, text books, quizzes, glossaries, etc.) The Great Book of Knowledge, Part 1: A Wiki is a Kind of Bus, Ideas, with Paul Kennedy, CBC Radio One, originally broadcast January 15, 2014. Webpage includes a link to the archived audio program (also found here). The radio documentary discusses Wikipedia's history, development and its place within the broader scope of the trend to democratized knowledge. It also includes interviews with several key Wikipedia staff and contributors, including Kat Walsh and Sue Gardner (audio, 53:58, Flash required). Other media coverage See also: List of films about Wikipedia "See Who's Editing Wikipedia – Diebold, the CIA, a Campaign", WIRED, August 14, 2007. Balke, Jeff (March 2008). "For Music Fans: Wikipedia; MySpace". Houston Chronicle. Broken Record (blog). Retrieved December 17, 2008. Dee, Jonathan (July 1, 2007). "All the News That's Fit to Print Out". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2008. Giles, Jim (September 20, 2007). "Wikipedia 2.0 – Now with Added Trust". New Scientist. Retrieved January 14, 2008. Miliard, Mike (December 2, 2007). "Wikipedia Rules". The Phoenix. Retrieved February 22, 2008. Poe, Marshall (September 1, 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved March 22, 2008. Rosenwald, Michael S. (October 23, 2009). "Gatekeeper of D.C.'s entry: Road to city's Wikipedia page goes through a DuPont Circle bedroom". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2009. Runciman, David (May 28, 2009). "Like Boiling a Frog". London Review of Books. Retrieved June 3, 2009. Taylor, Chris (May 29, 2005). "It's a Wiki, Wiki World". Time. Retrieved February 22, 2008. "Technological Quarterly: Brain Scan: The Free-knowledge Fundamentalist". The Economist Web and Print. June 5, 2008. Retrieved June 5, 2008. Jimmy Wales changed the world with Wikipedia, the hugely popular online encyclopedia that anyone can edit. What will he do next? "Is Wikipedia Cracking Up?" The Independent, February 3, 2009. "Wikipedia probe into paid-for 'sockpuppet' entries", BBC News', October 21, 2013. "The Decline of Wikipedia", MIT Technology Review, October 22, 2013 Edits to Wikipedia pages on Bell, Garner, Diallo traced to 1 Police Plaza (March 2015), Capital Angola's Wikipedia Pirates Are Exposing Problems (March 2016), Motherboard Dark Side of Wikipedia at the Wayback Machine (archived August 4, 2016) Full Measure with Sharyl Attkinson, April 17, 2016. (Includes video.) Wales, Jimmy (December 9, 2016). "How Wikipedia Works". cato.org. Cato Institute. Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia, discusses the site, how it’s treated by governments, and how it’s fueled by its users. External links Find more about Wikipedia at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata Discussion from Meta-Wiki Documentation from MediaWiki Official website (Mobile) – multilingual portal (contains links to all language editions) (wikipedia.com still redirects here) Wikipedia at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikitrends: Wikipedia articles most visited today "Wikipedia collected news and commentary". The Guardian. Edit this at Wikidata Wikipedia topic page at The New York Times Video of TED talk by Jimmy Wales on the birth of Wikipedia [hide] v t e Wikipedia Overview Censorship Conflict-of-interest editing Criticism Deletionism and inclusionism Gender bias Racial bias MediaWiki Notability Reliability Vandalism Predictions of the project's end Community Administrators Arbitration Committee Edit-a-thon List of Wikipedias The Signpost Wikipedian in residence Wikimania WikiProject Women in Red People Florence Devouard Sue Gardner James Heilman Katherine Maher Magnus Manske Erik Möller Larry Sanger Lila Tretikov Jimmy Wales Wikipedians Wikipedian of the Year History Bomis Logo Controversies U.S. Congressional staff edits Essjay controversy Seigenthaler biography incident Henryk Batuta hoax Internet Watch Foundation Scientology Italian Wikipedia blackout English Wikipedia blackout Hillsborough Wikipedia posts MyWikiBiz Lsjbot VisualEditor Art+Feminism #1Lib1Ref Honors 2008 Quadriga award Wikipedia Monument 2015 Erasmus Prize 2015 Princess of Asturias Award References and analysis Cultural Bibliography Films Academic studies WikiScanner Wikipedia Review Wikipediocracy Wiki-Watch Mobile access Apps QRpedia Wapedia WikiNodes Wikipedia Zero Wikiwand Content use Books LLC DBpedia Deletionpedia Kiwix WikiReader Science information Health information Similar projects Interpedia Nupedia Citizendium Enciclopedia Libre Universal en Español Everipedia Veropedia List of online encyclopedias List of wikis Related Wikimedia Foundation Wikimedia movement The Iraq War: A Historiography of Wikipedia Changelogs Print Wikipedia Magna Carta (An Embroidery) 274301 Wikipedia Category Category [show] v t e Wikis [show] v t e Wikimedia Foundation [show] v t e List of Wikipedias by article count Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 195846295 LCCN: no2008072801 ISNI: 0000 0004 4914 788X GND: 7545251-0 SELIBR: 319345 SUDOC: 11109383X BNF: cb150837752 (data) BIBSYS: 8030646 NKC: kn20090528031 Categories: Wikipedia2001 establishments in the United StatesAdvertising-free websitesAmerican websitesCreative Commons-licensed websitesFree online encyclopediasInternet properties established in 2001Multilingual websitesOpen content projectsSocial information processingVirtual communitiesWikimedia projectsWikis Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadView sourceView historySearch Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Meta-Wiki Wikibooks Wikinews Wikiquote Wikiversity Languages Deutsch Español Français ??? Italiano ??????? Tagalog Ti?ng Vi?t ?? 262 more Edit links This page was last edited on 18 April 2018, at 12:26. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie statementMobile view bifg daddy joe just now WP:RECORDS "WP:RECORDS" redirects here. For WikiProject Record Charts, see WP:RECORD. WikiStats P cartesian graph.svg Main General info Status statistics WikiStats project WikiProject edit counters General statistics Awareness Editors Total size Size comparisons Growth Records Zipf's law comparison Breakdowns Editors by number of edits Editors by article count Time between edits Administrator actions v t e This is a page detailing various records of Wikipedia. Some of them may never be fully known, but it's worth listing the ones we know. Please fill in the gaps, and add your own records (as long as they are sensible)! Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Articles 3 Views 3.1 Cumulative views 3.2 Single-day views 4 Edits 5 Titles 5.1 Article with longest title 5.2 Article with shortest title 6 Links 7 Disambiguation pages 8 Consensus participation 9 Languages 10 Pictures 11 Deletion 12 Categories and templates 13 Numbers 14 High-use pages 15 Database reports 16 See also 17 References Beginnings See also: Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles, Wikipedia:2001 First page: HomePage created on 15 January 2001 First edit: HomePage on 15 January 2001 First named user: January 17: First known named user: User:ScottMoonen[1] First featured article: TheCanonofScripture, MathematicalGrouP, and NewZealand, tied on 23:53, January 21, 2001. However, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was first to be featured on the main page, on February 22, 2004 First Did You Know: Pencil sharpener, posted on February 22, 2004 (created by User:Raul654 on February 15, 2004) First Picture of the Day: Virgin River Narrows, Friday May 14, 2004[2] The English-language Wikipedia's first picture of the day The Virgin River Narrows in Zion National Park, located near Springdale, Utah, is a 16-mile long slot canyon along the Virgin River. Recently rated as number five out of National Geographic's Top 100 American Adventures, it is one of the most rewarding hikes in the world. Photo credit: Jon Sullivan, pdphoto.org Articles Oldest surviving edit (older edits have existed, but have since been lost because of the way UseModWiki worked): UuU (20:08 UTC, 16 January 2001) Longest article: List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation ?(867,401 bytes as of 29 March 2018) Longest article that is not a list: 2016–17 Coupe de France Preliminary Rounds ?(690,191 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest biography article: Eric Walter Elst (354,626 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest featured article: Barack Obama (337,024 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Shortest featured article: Scene7 (8,210 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Articles with the most references/citations: That is a list: List of Hillary Clinton presidential campaign non-political endorsements, 2016 has 2303 as of 24 February 2018 That is a biography: Joseph Stalin has 872 as of 24 February 2018 That is neither a list nor a biography: Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) has 997 as of 24 February 2018 Most references for one sentence: 172 in 21 May 2010 version of Educology. Most hatnotes for one article: 13 October 2017 version of Music recording sales certification. Longest time an article had no references: Reign. Unreferenced from 19 January 2003? to 9 April 2017. Largest article talk page including archives: Talk:Intelligent design (18.8 MB as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a main namespace talk page: Talk:Jesus (131 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace talk page: Wikipedia talk:Requests for adminship (249 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace non-talk page: Wikipedia:Administrators' noticeboard/Incidents (977 as of 24 February 2018) Most successful FA nominations: 169 by Wehwalt (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by featured article nominations) Most DYK (Did You Know?) articles: 1666 by Dr. Blofeld (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by number of DYKs) Views The most viewed pages of Wikipedia's initial years (2001–2007) remain unknown, though the multiyear ranking of most viewed pages gives views for top-100 pages since 2007. In addition, http://stats.grok.se/ gives statistics for specific months in the same years. Cumulative views The most visited pages are the Main Page, followed by Special:Search and Special:Random. The most visited articles (non-special pages) are Wiki, followed by Facebook and then YouTube. However, the consistent popularity of these articles is due in part to people accidentally typing these site names/URLs into a Wikipedia search box (either in the MediaWiki interface or a web browser) when intending to actually visit the sites themselves.[3] The most visited articles that are not about a website are United States, followed by Donald Trump and then Barack Obama.[4] The most visited articles that are neither about a website nor pertaining specifically to the United States are India, followed by World War II and then Michael Jackson.[5] Single-day views The most visited page on a single day is always the Main Page, averaging over 23 million views per day as of 2016, far more views than any other page. The most visited article (non-special page) on a single day is Steve Jobs, which had 7.4 million views on 6 October 2011 and 1.6 million on 7 October.[6] The previous record was Michael Jackson, which had 5.9 million views on 26 June 2009.[7] In both cases, the record views were set one day after the subjects' deaths. The most visited article on a single day that was not just after the subject's death is Donald Trump, which had 6.1 million views on November 9, 2016, the day after he was elected President of the United States.[8] Edits Most edited article:[9] in any namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Main Article namespace: List of WWE personnel (48,027 edits as of 29 March 2018; see Special:MostRevisions) in Talk namespace: Talk:Main Page (140,152 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User namespace: User:Cyde/List of candidates for speedy deletion/Subpage (868,556 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User Talk namespace: User talk:Jimbo Wales (145,953 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia talk: Wikipedia talk:Did you know (78,727 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in MediaWiki talk: MediaWiki talk:Spam-blacklist (17,990 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template: Template:AFC statistics (68,248 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template talk: Template talk:Did you know (351,905 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Portal: Portal:Current events/Sports (41,619 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] Article edited by the largest number of users: Article unedited for the longest time: See WP:Database reports/Forgotten articles Article that was stub for longest time: Cannot be determined, because there is no clear definition of how long the text of an article has to be for the article to stop being a stub. Most edits to one article in a single day: 7 July 2005 London bombings (2,857 edits in 24 hours; the article was receiving up to 15 edits per minute at some stages) Most edits by a user (bot): Cydebot has 5,121,263 edits as of 08:13, 16 March 2016 (UTC).[10] Most edits by a user (non-bot): Ser Amantio di Nicolao (1,583,487 edits as of March 15, 2016)[10] Most edits by an IP address: 68.39.174.238 (22,210 edits as of January 27, 2015) Largest single contributing edit (non-bot): revision 747382971 of List of named minor planets (numerical) (+2,024,726), edited by Rfassbind. Largest article at creation date: List of named minor planets (numerical), 2,024,726 bytes Titles Article with longest title See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (technical restrictions) § Title length See the sortable table below for the articles with the longest titles. Note: The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia limits the length of the titles to 255 bytes, thus some titles that would be longer than the ones in the table below are not included. For instance, the full title of When the Pawn... would be 445 bytes. Characters counting spaces Characters excluding spaces Article title 185 155 To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to take certain Federal lands located in El Dorado County, California, into trust for the benefit of the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians 182 182 Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon 180 153 Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders Longest full typed number with an article: 9223372036854775807[11] Article with shortest title A number of Wikipedia articles have single-character titles. There are 36 articles with titles of only one ASCII character in length: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z A further 123 articles have titles of a single Unicode character: À, Ã, È, Ê, Ì, Í, Î, Ï, Ò, Õ, Ú, Û, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? ,? ,?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? Links Page linked to by most other pages: Wikipedia:Sandbox Most linked article in main namespace: IP address Article with most links: Article in most categories: Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, in 286 categories as of 21 February 2018. The 162 top articles are international conventions with a category for each participant. Most categories for a non-convention article: Winston Churchill (131), Nicolae Iorga (122) and Elon Musk (122) Most external links in whole article: Perhaps List of MeSH codes (D02), 2,542 external links, all to the same site (April 25, 2014) Oldest surviving red link: Hammarön from Hammarö Municipality, May 25, 2004 to November 23, 2015 Most linked to image: Information.svg (6,639,021 pages as of 24 February 2018) (see Special:MostLinkedFiles) Disambiguation pages In May 2014 the disambiguation pages with the largest numbers of entries were:[12] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries St. Mary's Church 584 Communist Party (disambiguation) 569 Aliabad 520 The largest with diverse entries:[13] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries Saint Paul (disambiguation) 232 Star (disambiguation) 221 Saint-Pierre 218 Consensus participation 687 – WikiProject Usability/Main Page 600 – Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Default State RFC#Question 1: When a new account is created, should the preference be set to disable VE ("opt-in") or to enable VE ("opt-out")? 567 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Newyorkbrad 541 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Giano II 488 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Raul654 424 – Wikipedia:Attribution/Poll 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Deskana 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2006/Vote/Can't sleep, clown will eat me 383 – Wikipedia:Requests for adminship/Danny 2 358 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Rebecca 341 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Fred Bauder 327 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/FayssalF 326 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Mindspillage See generally Wikipedia:Times that 300 or more Wikipedians supported something Languages Article in largest number of languages (apart from Main Page): excluding test wikis: Finland in 285 languages (See Special:MostInterwikis) including test wikis: Kurów in 345 languages (See Stats) Featured article on the most different language Wikipedias: Mars (19) Featured article in largest number of language Wikipedias but not English: World War II (18) Featured article on the highest percentage of different language Wikipedias: (fill in if found) Language with highest percentage of featured articles: (fill in if found) Pictures Article with most pictures: List of B8 polytopes with 2,429 images (Also User:Tuvalkin/BSiconRS with a browser-crushing 18,558) Picture in most articles: File:Information.svg (Information.svg) is used 4,776,141 times Counting only links from main-namespace articles, File:Question book-new.svg (Question book-new.svg) is used 407,468 times First picture: (fill in if found) Most edited picture: (fill in if found) Oldest picture on record: File:The Crusades (1935 film) video boxart.jpg created on 08:18, August 14, 2002. Oldest featured picture: (fill in if found) Image sizes: Largest:File:N. M. Price - Sir Walter Scott - Guy Mannering - At the Kaim of Derncleugh original scan.png at 94,693,415 bytes Smallest File:1px f8fcff.gif at 35 bytes Average size (as of February 2012): 229,065 bytes Deletion Longest undetected vandalism in article: Piateda, vandalized on 2 July 2007 and repaired on 27 April 2016, after 8 years, 9 months, 25 days. Longest undetected vandalism on a redirect page: List of albums by the Beatles, vandalized on 25 March 2007 and repaired on 13 September 2016, after 9 years, 5 months, 19 days. Longest undetected vandalism in media files: File:Burnin' Up Single Cover.JPG, vandalized on 25 September 2008 and repaired on 20 January 2015, after 6 years, 3 months, 26 days. Longest undetected copyvio: Gene Bearden, added 20 March 2004 (revision deleted), removed 10 September 2012. Total length of time undetected: 8 years, 5 months, 20 days. Longest undetected hoax article: Bine (mythology) lasted 12 years, 4 months, and 1 day. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia Most deleted (and recreated) article: Daniel Brandt – 40 times created and deleted. Article with most deletion discussions (VfD, AfD and DRV): Gay Nigger Association of America – 41 (deleted, later redone). See Wikipedia:LAME#Deletion wars. Longest deleted article: Probability derivations for making low hands in Omaha hold 'em (305 kB), which was transwikied to Wikibooks as a result of this AFD. Categories and templates First category: Category:World War II was created by User:Raul654 at 03:59 on 30 May 2004 Largest category: Category:All stub articles. (Of course, Category:Articles includes almost all articles within its subcategories.) First template: Template:Periodic table (oldest surviving – there may be older templates that have been deleted. Also, while it was created in 2002, it was originally in the mainspace and was moved to the template namespace in 2010.) Largest template: Template:Pfam2PDBsum (1.7MB, unused due to size) Largest navigation template: Maybe Template:Shakespeare's plays with 1803 wikilinks as of December 2017. It displays 33 other navigation templates but is only used in four articles.[1] Numbers 100,000th article: Hastings, New Zealand 500,000th article: Forced settlements in the Soviet Union (originally entitled "Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union") Millionth article: Jordanhill railway station 2M article: El Hormiguero 3M article: Beate Eriksen 4M article: Ezbet el-Borg 5M article: Persoonia terminalis 100,000th user: User:Wakmah Millionth user: User:Jchriscampbell See also Wikipedia:Milestone statistics High-use pages Most linked-to categories Most linked-to files Most linked-to pages Most transcluded pages Pages with the most interwikis Pages with the most revisions (article pages) Database reports Long pages (all pages on the project) Talk pages by size Most-watched pages Most-watched pages by namespace Most-watched users Pages with the most revisions Long stubs See also History of Wikipedia Wikipedia:Statistics Wikipedia:Article traffic jumps References Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles Wikipedia:Picture of the day/May 2004 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2013-02-04/Special report Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics". October 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-05. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics: Michael Jackson". June 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-30. "Traffic report: President-elect Trump". November 26, 2016. Wikipedia:Database reports/Pages with the most revisions Calculated using the MediaWiki API; using a URL like this one relevant part of Category:Integers, retrieved 25 November 2016. Schneider, Todd (30 May 2014). "What Is the Longest Disambiguation Page on Wikipedia?". Future Tense. Slate. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Article includes links to a Google spreadsheet of largest 1000 and a .csv file of the whole dataset used Schneider, Todd. "Top 1000 Longest Disambiguation Pages on Wikipedia". Google Docs. Retrieved 31 December 2017. Categories: Wikipedia statisticsWikipedia history Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inProject pageTalkReadEditView historySearch Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikidata Page semi-protected Unidentified flying object From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ufo) For other uses, see Unidentified flying object (disambiguation). "UFO" redirects here. For other uses, see UFO (disambiguation). "ufo" redirects here. For the genus of gall-wasps, see Ufo (genus). Photograph of an alleged UFO in Passaic, New Jersey, taken on July 31, 1952. US F/A-18 Footage of a UFO (circled in red) An unidentified flying object or UFO is an object perceived in the sky that is not readily identified. Most UFOs are later identified as conventional objects or phenomena. The term is widely used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial craft. Contents 1 Terminology 2 Studies 3 Early history 4 Investigations 4.1 Project Sign 4.2 Project Grudge 4.3 USAF Regulation 200-2 4.4 Project Blue Book 4.5 Scientific studies 4.6 United States 4.6.1 Post-1947 sightings 4.6.2 Project Sign 4.6.3 Condon Committee 4.6.4 Notable cases 4.7 Brazil 4.8 Canada 4.9 France 4.10 Italy 4.10.1 Notable cases 4.11 United Kingdom 4.11.1 Notable cases 4.12 Uruguay 4.13 Astronomer reports 5 Claims of increase in reports 6 Identification of UFOs 7 Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel 8 Extraterrestrial hypothesis 9 Associated claims 10 Ufology 10.1 Researchers 10.2 Sightings 10.3 Organizations 10.4 Categorization 10.5 Scientific skepticism 11 Conspiracy theories 12 Famous hoaxes 13 In popular culture 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Bibliography 17.1 General 17.2 History 17.3 Psychology 17.4 Technology 17.5 Skepticism 18 External links Terminology The term "UFO" (or "UFOB") was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF) to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was initially restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects" (see Air Force Regulation 200-2). During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were often referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs". The term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but later in popular use. UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, and, more recently, in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons.[1][2] Nevertheless, various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit (e.g., 1951 Flying Saucer Working Party, 1953 CIA Robertson Panel, USAF Project Blue Book, Condon Committee). The Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO as "An unidentified flying object; a 'flying saucer'." The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe.[3] The acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book, then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. He wrote, "Obviously the term 'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO (pronounced Yoo-foe) for short."[4] Other phrases that were used officially and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", and "unidentifiable object".[5][6][7] The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947. On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold timed the sighting and estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph (1,931 km/h). At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs".[8][9] In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft.[3] and because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" (UAP) or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP).[10] "Anomalous aerial vehicle" (AAV) or "unidentified aerial system" (UAS) are also sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.[11] Studies Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even being hoaxes.[note 1] Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, and therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are simply other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Almost no scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals.[12] There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation.[20][21] The void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) in the mid-20th century and, more recently, the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON)[22] and the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS).[23] The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects.[24] UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture,[25] and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology.[12] Early history Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily seen with the naked eye, planetary conjunctions, or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. An example is Halley's Comet, which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 BC and possibly as early as 467 BC. Such sightings throughout history often were treated as supernatural portents, angels, or other religious omens. Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports[26] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images.[27] On April 14, 1561, residents of Nuremberg described the appearance of a large black triangular object. According to witnesses, there were also hundreds of spheres, cylinders and other odd-shaped objects that moved erratically overhead.[28] On January 25, 1878, the Denison Daily News printed an article in which John Martin, a local farmer, had reported seeing a large, dark, circular object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed." Martin, according to the newspaper account, said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer, the first known use of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO.[29] In April 1897, thousands of people reported seeing "airships" in various parts of the United States. Many signed affidavits. Scores of people even reported talking to the pilots. Thomas Edison was asked his opinion, and said, "You can take it from me that it is a pure fake."[30][31] On February 28, 1904, there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles (483 km) west of San Francisco, reported by Lieutenant Frank Schofield, later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Schofield wrote of three bright red egg-shaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer, then changed course and "soared" above the clouds, departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. The largest had an apparent size of about six Suns, he said.[32][33] The three earliest known pilot UFO sightings, of 1,305 similar sightings catalogued by NARCAP, took place in 1916 and 1926. On January 31, 1916, a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights, resembling lighted windows on a railway carriage, that rose and disappeared. In January 1926 a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita, Kansas, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. In late September 1926 an airmail pilot over Nevada said he had been forced to land by a huge, wingless, cylindrical object.[34] On August 5, 1926, while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region, Russian explorer Nicholas Roerich reported, members of his expedition saw "something big and shiny reflecting the sun, like a huge oval moving at great speed. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface, one side of which was brilliant from the sun."[35] Another description by Roerich was of a "shiny body flying from north to south. Field glasses are at hand. It is a huge body. One side glows in the sun. It is oval in shape. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest."[36] In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II, "foo fighters" (metallic spheres, balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. Elmo's fire, the planet Venus, hallucinations from oxygen deprivation, or German secret weapons.[37][38] In 1946, more than 2,000 reports were collected, primarily by the Swedish military, of unidentified aerial objects over the Scandinavian nations, along with isolated reports from France, Portugal, Italy and Greece. The objects were referred to as "Russian hail" and later as "ghost rockets" because it was thought that the mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2 rockets. Although most were thought to be such natural phenomena as meteors, more than 200 were tracked on radar by the Swedish military and deemed to be "real physical objects." In a 1948 top secret document, Swedish authorities advised the USAF Europe that some of their investigators believed these craft to be extraterrestrial in origin.[39] Investigations UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that varied widely in scope and scientific rigor. Governments or independent academics in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, Peru, France, Belgium, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, Spain, and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947), Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969, the secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951), the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14[40] by the Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Brazilian Air Force's 1977 Operação Prato (Operation Saucer). France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) since 1977; the government of Uruguay has had a similar investigation since 1989. Project Sign Main article: Project Sign Project Sign in 1948 produced a highly classified finding (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation. A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed that the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. (For document, see Ghost rockets.) In 1954 German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed that an internal West German government investigation, which he headed, had arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion, but this study was never made public. Project Grudge Main article: Project Grudge Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge, the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951, placing Ruppelt in charge. Blue Book closed down in 1970, using the Condon Committee's negative conclusion as a rationale, thus ending official Air Force UFO investigations. However, a 1969 USAF document, known as the Bolender memo, along with later government documents, revealed that non-public U.S. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. The Bolender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security ... are not part of the Blue Book system," indicating that more serious UFO incidents already were handled outside the public Blue Book investigation. The memo then added, "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose."[note 2] In addition, in the late 1960s a chapter on UFOs in the Space Sciences course at the U.S. Air Force Academy gave serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. When word of the curriculum became public, the Air Force in 1970 issued a statement to the effect that the book was outdated and that cadets instead were being informed of the Condon Report's negative conclusion.[41] USAF Regulation 200-2 Air Force Regulation 200-2,[42] issued in 1953 and 1954, defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved." The regulation went on to say that "it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object," but added: "For those objects which are not explainable, only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release, due to many unknowns involved."[42] Project Blue Book Main article: Project Blue Book Allen Hynek (left) and Jacques Vallée J. Allen Hynek, a trained astronomer who served as a scientific advisor for Project Blue Book, was initially skeptical of UFO reports, but eventually came to the conclusion that many of them could not be satisfactorily explained and was highly critical of what he described as "the cavalier disregard by Project Blue Book of the principles of scientific investigation."[43] Leaving government work, he founded the privately funded CUFOS, to whose work he devoted the rest of his life. Other private groups studying the phenomenon include the MUFON, a grass roots organization whose investigator's handbooks go into great detail on the documentation of alleged UFO sightings. Like Hynek, Jacques Vallée, a scientist and prominent UFO researcher, has pointed to what he believes is the scientific deficiency of most UFO research, including government studies. He complains of the mythology and cultism often associated with the phenomenon, but alleges that several hundred professional scientists—a group both he and Hynek have termed "the invisible college"—continue to study UFOs in private.[25] Scientific studies The study of UFOs has received little support in mainstream scientific literature. Official studies ended in the U.S. in December 1969, following the statement by the government scientist Edward Condon that further study of UFOs could not be justified on grounds of scientific advancement.[15][44] The Condon Report and its conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists, of which Condon was a member. On the other hand, a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) disagreed with Condon's conclusion, noting that at least 30 percent of the cases studied remained unexplained and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study. Critics argue that all UFO evidence is anecdotal[45] and can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. Defenders of UFO research counter that knowledge of observational data, other than what is reported in the popular media, is limited in the scientific community and that further study is needed.[25][46] No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real, physical objects, extraterrestrial in origin, or of concern to national defense. These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years, such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party, Project Condign, the U.S. CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel, the U.S. military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951, and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14). Some public government reports have acknowledged the possibility of physical reality of UFOs, but have stopped short of proposing extraterrestrial origins, though not dismissing the possibility entirely. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the 2009 Uruguayan Air Force study conclusion (see below). Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions, but argued that the inexplicable core cases call for continued scientific study. Examples are the Sturrock panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report. United States U.S. investigations into UFOs include: The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU), established by the U.S. Army sometime in the 1940s, and about which little is known. In 1987, British UFO researcher Timothy Good received from the Army's director of counter-intelligence a letter confirming the existence of the IPU. The letter stated that "the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished during the late 1950s and never reactivated. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK." The IPU records have never been released.[47] Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969 The secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951) Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish, UK, U.S., and Greek militaries (1946–1947) The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53) The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953) The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954) The Brookings Report (1960), commissioned by NASA The public Condon Committee (1966–1968) The private, internal RAND Corporation study (1968)[48] The private Sturrock panel (1998) The secret Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program which was funded from 2007 to 2012.[49] Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U.S. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs. These agencies include the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), FBI,[7] CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and U.S. Navy, in addition to the Air Force.[note 3] The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians, who in the U.S formed research groups such as NICAP (active 1956–1980), Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) (active 1952–1988), MUFON (active 1969–), and CUFOS (active 1973–). In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited this planet and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race."[50][51] Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye."[50][51] The response further noted that efforts, like SETI and NASA's Kepler space telescope and Mars Science Laboratory, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."[50][51] Post-1947 sightings Following the large U.S. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947, on July 9, 1947, United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) intelligence, in cooperation with the FBI,[7] began a formal investigation into selected sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized, such as Kenneth Arnold's. The USAAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether "such a phenomenon could, in fact, occur." The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon," or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled."[52] Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate, the air force investigation decided that, "This 'flying saucer' situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around."[53] A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion. It reported that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious," that there were objects in the shape of a disc, metallic in appearance, and as big as man-made aircraft. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability," general lack of noise, absence of trail, occasional formation flying, and "evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar," suggesting a controlled craft. It was therefore recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation.[note 4] Project Sign This led to the creation of the Air Force's Project Sign at the end of 1947, one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. In August 1948, Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect, but the Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it, such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. Allen Hynek and Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book.[54] Another highly classified U.S. study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 in response to orders from the National Security Council (NSC). This study concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read: the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention ... Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U.S. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles. The matter was considered so urgent that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. It also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists, now known as the Robertson Panel to analyze the problem of UFOs. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953.[55] Condon Committee Main article: Condon Committee A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF, which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968, marked the end of the U.S. government's official investigation of UFOs, though various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation.[note 5] Controversy has surrounded the Condon Report, both before and after it was released. It has been observed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists, particularly at the powerful AIAA ... [which] recommended moderate, but continuous scientific work on UFOs."[15] In an address to the AAAS, James E. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem and criticized the Condon Report and earlier studies by the USAF as scientifically deficient. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions[56] and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court."[14] J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer who worked as a USAF consultant from 1948, sharply criticized the Condon Committee Report and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for continuing to investigate UFO reports. Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book, a USAF investigation that preceded Condon's.[57] Notable cases The Roswell UFO incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents, local law enforcement officers, and the U.S. military, the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site. The Mantell UFO incident January 7, 1948 The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident. In the Kecksburg UFO incident, Pennsylvania (1965), residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area. Police officers, and possibly military personnel, were sent to investigate. The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky (1993) was based on this event, but greatly embellished the original account. The "Phoenix Lights" March 13, 1997 2006 O'Hare International Airport UFO sighting Document on sighting of a UFO occurred on December 16, 1977, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Brazil On October 31, 2008, the National Archives of Brazil began receiving from the Aeronautical Documentation and History Center part of the documentation of the Brazilian Air Force regarding the investigation of the appearance of UFOs in Brazil. Currently this collection gathers cases between 1952 and 2016.[58] Canada In Canada, the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports, sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel, Alberta, it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour UFO incident in Nova Scotia.[59] Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Storey (1952–1954), supported by the Defence Research Board. France On March 2007, the French space agency CNES published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online.[60] French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–), within CNES (French space agency), the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. About 22% of 6000 cases studied remain unexplained.[61] The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral, stating on their FAQ page that their mission is fact-finding for the scientific community, not rendering an opinion. They add they can neither prove nor disprove the Exterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH), but their Steering Committee's clear position is that they cannot discard the possibility that some fraction of the very strange 22% of unexplained cases might be due to distant and advanced civilizations.[62] Possibly their bias may be indicated by their use of the terms "PAN" (French) or "UAP" (English equivalent) for "Unidentified Aerospace Phenomenon" (whereas "UAP" as normally used by English organizations stands for "Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon", a more neutral term). In addition, the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one.[63][64][65] In 2008, Michel Scheller, president of the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (3AF), created the Sigma Commission. Its purpose was to investigate UFO phenomenon worldwide.[66] A progress report published in May 2010 stated that the central hypothesis proposed by the COMETA report is perfectly credible.[67] In December 2012, the final report of the Sigma Commission was submitted to Scheller. Following the submission of the final report, the Sigma2 Commission is to be formed with a mandate to continue the scientific investigation of UFO phenomenon.[68][69] The most notable cases of UFO sightings in France include the Valensole UFO incident in 1965, and the Trans-en-Provence Case in 1981. Italy According to some Italian ufologists, the first documented case of a UFO sighting in Italy dates back to April 11, 1933, to Varese. Documents of the time show that an alleged UFO crashed or landed near Vergiate. Following this, Benito Mussolini created a secret group to look at it, called Cabinet RS/33.[70][71] Alleged UFO sightings gradually increased since the war, peaking in 1978 and 2005. The total number of sightings since 1947 are 18,500, of which 90% are identifiable.[72] In 2000, Italian ufologist Roberto Pinotti published material regarding the so-called "Fascist UFO Files", which dealt with a flying saucer that had crashed near Milan in 1933 (some 14 years before the Roswell, New Mexico, crash), and of the subsequent investigation by a never mentioned before Cabinet RS/33, that allegedly was authorized by Benito Mussolini, and headed by the Nobel scientist Guglielmo Marconi. A spaceship was allegedly stored in the hangars of the SIAI Marchetti in Vergiate near Milan.[73] Julius Obsequens was a Roman writer who is believed to have lived in the middle of the fourth century AD. The only work associated with his name is the Liber de prodigiis (Book of Prodigies), completely extracted from an epitome, or abridgment, written by Livy; De prodigiis was constructed as an account of the wonders and portents that occurred in Rome between 249 BC-12 BC. An aspect of Obsequens' work that has inspired much interest in some circles is that references are made to things moving through the sky. These have been interpreted as reports of UFOs, but may just as well describe meteors, and, since Obsequens, probably, writes in the 4th century, that is, some 400 years after the events he describes, they hardly qualify as eye-witness accounts.[74][75] Notable cases A UFO sighting in Florence, October 28, 1954, followed by a fall of angel hair.[76] In 1973, an Alitalia airplane left Rome for Naples sighted a mysterious round object. Two Italian Air Force planes from Ciampino confirmed the sighting.[77] In the same year there was another sighting at Caselle airport near Turin.[78] In 1978, two young hikers, while walking on Monte Musinè near Turin, saw a bright light; one of them temporarily disappeared and, after a while, was found in a state of shock and with a noticeable scald on one leg. After regaining consciousness, he reported having seen an elongated vehicle and that some strangely shaped beings descended from it. Both the young hikers suffered from conjunctivitis for some time.[79] A close encounter reported in September 1978 in Torrita di Siena in the Province of Siena. A young motorist saw in front of him a bright object, two beings of small stature who wore suits and helmets, the two approached the car, and after watching it carefully went back and rose again to the UFO. A boy who lived with his family in a country house not far from there said he had seen at the same time "a kind of small reddish sun".[80] Yet in 1978, there has been also the story of Pier Fortunato Zanfretta, the best known and most controversial case of an Italian alleged alien abduction. Zanfretta said to have been kidnapped on the night of 6 December and 7 December while he was performing his job at Marzano, in the municipality of Torriglia in the Province of Genoa;[81] 52 testimonies of the case from other people were collected.[81] United Kingdom The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in June 1951, which remained secret for over 50 years. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena, optical illusions, psychological misperceptions/aberrations, or hoaxes. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken, unless and until some material evidence becomes available."[82] Eight file collections on UFO sightings, dating from 1978 to 1987, were first released on May 14, 2008, to The National Archives by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).[83] Although kept secret from the public for many years, most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to the British government and officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.[84] These files include, but are not limited to, UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London.[85] On October 20, 2008, more UFO files were released. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching London Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across.[86] A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the Ministry of Defence between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. The resulting report, titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region", was publicly released in 2006, but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities, despite thousands of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena reports. There are no SIGINT, ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP, seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region], are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin, or that they represent any hostile intent." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to ball lightning are responsible for "the majority, if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings, especially reports of black triangle UFOs.[87] On December 1, 2009, the Ministry of Defence quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the MoD on that date. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release, stating in over fifty years, no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. Furthermore, responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence." The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50,000 a year. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through The National Archives.[88] Notable cases According to records released on August 5, 2010, British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. Reports given to Churchill asserted that the incident involved a Royal Air Force (RAF) reconnaissance aircraft returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of World War II. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. The aircraft's crew were reported to have photographed the object, which they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft, before moving off.[89] According to the documents, details of the coverup emerged when a man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident and described how his grandfather, who had served with the RAF in the war, was present when Churchill and U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter.[90][91] The files come from more than 5,000 pages of UFO reports, letters and drawings from members of the public, as well as questions raised in Parliament. They are available to download from The National Archives website.[83] In the April 1957 West Freugh incident in Scotland, named after the principal military base involved, two unidentified objects flying high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform maneuvers beyond the capability of any known craft. Also significant is their alleged size, which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft. In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980, U.S. military personnel witnessed UFOs near the air base at Woodbridge, Suffolk, over a period of three nights. On one night the deputy base commander, Colonel Charles I. Halt, and other personnel followed one or more UFOs that were moving in and above the forest for several hours. Col. Halt made an audio recording while this was happening and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. After retirement from the military, he said that he had deliberately downplayed the event (officially termed 'Unexplained Lights') to avoid damaging his career. Other base personnel are said to have observed one of the UFOs, which had landed in the forest, and even gone up to and touched it. Uruguay The Uruguayan Air Force has conducted UFO investigations since 1989 and reportedly analyzed 2,100 cases of which they regard approximately 2% as lacking explanation.[92] Astronomer reports The USAF's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1%[93] of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). In 1952, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, then a consultant to Blue Book, conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). In the 1970s, astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the AIAA and American Astronomical Society (AAS). About 5% of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings. Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who admitted to six UFO sightings, including three green fireballs, supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific." Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz, who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. LaPaz reported two personal sightings, one of a green fireball, the other of an anomalous disc-like object. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft.[94] In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for CUFOS found that 24% responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?"[95] Claims of increase in reports MUFON reports that UFO sightings to their offices have increased by 67% in the previous three years as of 2011. According to MUFON international director Clifford Clift in 2011, "Over the past year, we've been averaging 500 sighting reports a month, compared to about 300 three years ago [67 percent],".[96][97] According to the annual survey of reports conducted by Canadian-based UFO research group Ufology Research, reported UFO sightings doubled in Canada between 2011 and 2012.[98][99] In 2013 the Peruvian government's Departamento de Investigación de Fenómenos Aéreos Anómalos (Anomalous Aerial Phenomena Research Department), or "DIFAA", was officially reactivated due to an increase in reported sightings. According to Colonel Julio Vucetich, head of the air force's aerospace interests division who himself claims to have seen an "anomalous aerial object", "On a personal basis, it's evident to me that we are not alone in this world or universe."[100][101] In contrast, according to the UK-based Association for the Scientific Study of Anomalous Phenomena (ASSAP), reports of sightings in Britain to their office have declined by 96% since 1988.[102] Identification of UFOs Main article: Identification studies of UFOs Fata Morgana, a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky just above the horizon, may be responsible for some UFO sightings. (Here, the shape floating above the horizon is the reflected image of a boat.) Fata Morgana can also distort the appearance of distant objects, sometimes making them unrecognizable[103] Lenticular clouds have in some cases been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape Studies show that after careful investigation, the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena. The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are: Astronomical objects (bright stars, planets, meteors, re-entering man-made spacecraft, artificial satellites, and the Moon) Aircraft (aerial advertising and other aircraft, missile launches) Balloons (toy balloons, weather balloons, large research balloons) Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds, unusual clouds, kites, flares) Light phenomena mirages, Fata Morgana, ball lightning, moon dogs, searchlights and other ground lights, etc. Hoaxes A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the USAF included these categories as well as a "psychological" one. An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found, as did other investigations, that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception.[104] Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel Since 2001 there have been calls for greater openness on the part of the government by various persons. In May 2001, a press conference was held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., by an organization called the Disclosure Project, featuring twenty persons including retired Air Force and FAA personnel, intelligence officers and an air traffic controller.[105][106][107][108][109][110][111] They all gave a brief account of what they knew or had witnessed, and stated that they would be willing to testify to what they had said under oath to a Congressional committee. According to a 2002 report in the Oregon Daily Emerald, Disclosure Project founder Steven M. Greer has gathered 120 hours of testimony from various government officials on the topic of UFOs, including astronaut Gordon Cooper and a Brigadier General.[112] In 2007, former Arizona governor Fife Symington came forward and belatedly claimed that he had seen "a massive, delta-shaped craft silently navigate over Squaw Peak, a mountain range in Phoenix, Arizona" in 1997.[113] On September 27, 2010, a group of six former USAF officers and one former enlisted Air Force man held a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., on the theme "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Have Been Compromised by Unidentified Aerial Objects."[114] They told how they had witnessed UFOs hovering near missile sites and even disarming the missiles. From April 29 to May 3, 2013, the Paradigm Research Group held the "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure" at the National Press Club. The group paid former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel and former Representatives Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, Roscoe Bartlett, Merrill Cook, Darlene Hooley, and Lynn Woolsey $20,000 each to hear testimony from a panel of researchers which included witnesses from military, agency, and political backgrounds.[115][116] Apollo 14 astronaut Dr Edgar Mitchell claimed that he knew of senior government employees who had been involved in "close encounters" and because of this he has no doubt that aliens have visited Earth.[117] Extraterrestrial hypothesis Main article: Extraterrestrial hypothesis While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft;[118] however, the term ETV (ExtraTerrestrial Vehicle) is sometimes used to separate this explanation of UFOs from totally earthbound explanations.[119] Associated claims Besides anecdotal visual sightings, reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence, including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book, the Condon Committee, the French GEPAN/SEPRA, and Uruguay's current Air Force study). A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock panel, with specific examples of many of the categories listed below.[120][121][122] Radar contact and tracking, sometimes from multiple sites. These have included military personnel and control tower operators, simultaneous visual sightings, and aircraft intercepts. One such example were the mass sightings of large, silent, low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium, tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence).[123] Another famous case from 1986 was the Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident over Alaska investigated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Photographic evidence, including still photos, movie film, and video. Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs, including ground impressions, burned or desiccated soil, burned and broken foliage, magnetic anomalies[specify], increased radiation levels, and metallic traces. (See, e. g. Height 611 UFO incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro, New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases.) A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest incident in England. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN, then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots. Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis, skin burns and rashes, corneal burns, and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning, such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. Animal/cattle mutilation cases, that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth, germination effects on seeds, and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran, recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents, was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs.[124] Apparent remote radiation detection, some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, also reported by Project Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt in his book. Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves, such as 1957, Ubatuba, Brazil, magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. The 1964 Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces, analyzed by NASA.[125][126] A more recent example involves a tear drop-shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in a television episode of UFO Hunters.[127] Angel hair and angel grass, possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff.[citation needed] Ufology Main article: Ufology Photograph of "an unusual atmospheric occurrence observed over Sri Lanka", forwarded to the UK Ministry of Defence by RAF Fylingdales, 2004 Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence. Researchers Main article: List of ufologists Sightings Main article: List of reported UFO sightings Organizations Main article: List of UFO organizations Categorization This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. Typical categories include: Saucer, toy-top, or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion. Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern, usually reported at night. Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way, but are very different phenomena). Other: chevrons, (equilateral) triangles, crescent, boomerangs, spheres (usually reported to be shining, glowing at night), domes, diamonds, shapeless black masses, eggs, pyramids and cylinders, classic "lights." Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system, created by J. Allen Hynek, and the Vallée system, created by Jacques Vallée.[citation needed] Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance, subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his 1977 UFO movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind). Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types, each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type. Scientific skepticism A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analysis of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI). One example is the response to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia, which the government and the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) described as "man-made". Thomas Djamaluddin, research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at LAPAN stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. Scientists have put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience."[128] Conspiracy theories Main article: Conspiracy theory See also: UFO conspiracy theory, Steven M. Greer, Men in Black, and Brookings Report UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally "covering up" the existence of aliens by removing physical evidence of their presence, or even collaborating with extraterrestrial beings. There are many versions of this story; some are exclusive, while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories. In the U.S., an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80% of Americans believed the U.S. government was withholding such information.[129][130] Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell, Senator Barry Goldwater, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director), Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head), the 1999 French COMETA study by various French generals and aerospace experts, and Yves Sillard (former director of CNES, new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN).[60] It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact (see also ancient astronauts). Famous hoaxes Main article: List of UFO-related hoaxes The Maury Island incident George Adamski, over the space of two decades, made various claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets. He claimed that photographs of the far side of the Moon taken by the Soviet lunar probe Luna 3 in 1959 were fake, and that there were cities, trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the Moon. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham. Ed Walters, a building contractor, in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. These sightings became famous, and are collectively referred to as the Gulf Breeze UFO incident. Three years later, in 1990, after the Walters family had moved, the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. Most investigators, like the forensic photo expert William G. Hyzer,[131] now consider the sightings to be a hoax. In popular culture A UFO Monument at Tenjo, Colombia. Main article: UFOs in fiction UFOs have constituted a widespread international cultural phenomenon since the 1950s. Gallup Polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. In 1973, a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs, whereas only 92 percent had heard of U.S. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House.[132][133] A 1996 Gallup Poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the U.S. government was covering up information regarding UFOs. A 2002 Roper Poll for the Sci-Fi Channel found similar results, but with more people believing that UFOs are extraterrestrial craft. In that latest poll, 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. Again, about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life.[134][135] Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction, for example the United Planets Cruiser C57D in Forbidden Planet (1956), the Jupiter 2 in Lost in Space, and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek, and many others. UFOs and extraterrestrials have been featured in many movies. See also Declassification of UFO documents Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting Kosmopoisk List of alleged aircraft–UFO incidents and near misses Majestic 12 Mystery airship Psychosocial hypothesis UFO religion Ufology Unidentified submerged object or USO Notes For example, the USAF's Project Blue Book concluded that less than 2 % of reported UFOs were "psychological" or hoaxes; Allan Hendry's study for CUFOS had less than 1 %. For example, current USAF general reporting procedures are in Air Force Instruction (AFI)10-206. Section 5.7.3 (p. 64) lists sightings of "unidentified flying objects" and "aircraft of unconventional design" as separate categories from potentially hostile but conventional, unidentified aircraft, missiles, surface vessels, or submarines. Additionally, "unidentified objects" detected by missile warning systems, creating a potential risk of nuclear war, are covered by Rule 5E (p.35). Many of these documents are now online at the FOIA websites of these agencies such as the "FBI FOIA site". Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2007. , as well as private websites such as The Black Vault, which has an archive of several thousand U.S. government UFO-related documents from the USAF, Army, CIA, DIA, DOD, and NSA. The so-called Twining memo of Sept. 23, 1947, by future USAF Chief of Staff, General Nathan Twining, specifically recommended intelligence cooperation with the Army, Navy, Atomic Energy Commission, the Defense Department's Joint Research and Development Board, Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), Project RAND, and the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project. See, e.g., the 1976 Tehran UFO incident where a Defense Intelligence Agency report on the event had a distribution list that included the White House, Secretary of State, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Agency (NSA), and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Several thousand UFO-related pages of more recent vintage from the CIA, NSA, DIA, and other agencies have also been released and can be viewed online.[1] References Blumenthal, Ralph (April 24, 2017). "People Are Seeing U.F.O.s Everywhere, and This Book Proves It". New York Times. 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"They're Here; UFO Watchers to Reveal Proof That Aliens Have Visited Earth". The Daily Record. Glasgow: Trinity Mirror. Retrieved 2013-03-10. Raymer, Katelynn; Ruppe, David (May 10, 2001). "Group Calls for Disclosure of UFO Info". ABC News. Retrieved 2013-03-11. Watson, Rob (May 10, 2001). "UFO spotters slam 'US cover-up'". BBC News. London: BBC. Retrieved 2013-09-11. Kehnemui, Sharon (May 10, 2001). "Men in Suits See Aliens as Part of Solution, Not Problem". FoxNews.com. New York: Fox Entertainment Group. Retrieved 2007-05-10. McCullagh, Declan (May 10, 2001). "Ooo-WEE-ooo Fans Come to D.C." Wired News. Waltham, MA: Lycos. Retrieved 2007-05-10. Schmidt, Brad (April 25, 2002). "Alien theorist offers proof of government coverup". Oregon Daily Emerald. Eugene, OR. Retrieved 2012-12-12. Symington, Fife (November 9, 2007). "Symington: I saw a UFO in the Arizona sky". CNN. Atlanta, GA: Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved 2013-11-25. Salas, Robert; Hastings, Robert (September 15, 2010). "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Have Been Compromised by Unidentified Aerial Objects" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: PR Newswire. Retrieved 2013-09-11. "National Press Club: UFOs Tampering with Nukes - Part 1/7" on YouTube Schultz, Marisa (April 29, 2013). "Ex-Rep. Kilpatrick 'waiting to hear' evidence of space aliens". The Detroit News. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on 2013-05-31. Retrieved 2013-09-11. "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure". Citizen Hearing on Disclosure. Bethesda, MD: Paradigm Research Group. Retrieved 2013-09-11. Mitchell, Edgar (2008), p262 Haines 1979, Chapter: "The Zeitgeist of the UFO Phenomenon" by Armando Simón Giere, Ronald N.; Bickle, John; Mauldin, Robert F. (2006), Understanding Scientific Reasoning (5th ed.), Wadsworth Publishing, p. 99, ISBN 0-15-506326-X, LCCN 2005922853, OCLC 61369793 "Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports - Sturrock Panel - Abstract, Summary and Introduction". Seattle, WA: ufoevidence.org. Retrieved 2013-09-08. Sturrock, et al. 1998 "Sturrock Panel". Seattle, WA: ufoevidence.org. Retrieved 2013-09-08. Other links to Sturrock panel. Van Utrecht, Wim. "Triangles over Belgium". Caelestia. Caelestia.be. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Fawcett & Greenwood, 81–89; Good 1988, pp. 318–322, 497–502 Good 1988, pp. 371–373 Stanford 1976, pp. 112–154 "UFO Relics". UFO Hunters. Season 3. Episode 33. May 6, 2009. History. Krismantari, Ika (February 6, 2011). "Crop circles provide food for thought". The Star. Petaling Jaya: Star Publications. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2013. "Is the Government Hiding Facts On UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life?; New Roper Poll Reveals that More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Think So" (Press release). New York: Business Wire. October 15, 2002. Retrieved 2013-09-12. "Poll: U.S. hiding knowledge of aliens". CNN. Atlanta, GA: Turner Broadcasting System. June 15, 1997. Retrieved 2013-09-12. Posner, Gary P. (July 1992). "The Gulf Breeze 'UFOs'". Tampa Bay Sounding. Seminole, FL: Tampa Bay Mensa. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Jacobs 2000, Chapter: "UFOs: Lost in the Myths" by Thomas E. Bullard, p. 141 Jacobs 2000, Chapter: "UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era" by Michael D. Swords, pp. 82–121 "The Roper Poll". Ufology Resource Center. SciFi.com. September 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-07-13. Retrieved 2006-08-19. "UFO Fast Facts". MUFON.com. Cincinnati, OH: Mutual UFO Network, Inc. Archived from the original on 2008-04-30. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Bibliography General Bullard, Thomas; (2012). The Myth and Mystery of UFOs. Lawrence: University of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1729-6. Clark, Jerome (1998). The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. LCCN 97035767. OCLC 37370629. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail; highly documented. Curran, Douglas (2001) [1st edition originally published 1985; New York: Abbeville Press]. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. Foreword by Tom Wolfe (Revised ed.). New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. LCCN 00052589. OCLC 45270419. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N. America, including the so-called "contactee cults." The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals. Deardorff, J.; Haisch, B.; Maccabee, B.; Puthoff, H. E. (2005). "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation" (PDF). Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. London: British Interplanetary Society. 58: 43–50. Bibcode:2005JBIS...58...43D. ISSN 0007-084X. Retrieved 2013-09-13. Friedman, Stanton T. (2008). Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books. ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7. LCCN 2008006291. OCLC 179812690. Greer, Steven M.; (2001). Disclosure. Crozer: Crossing Point. ISBN 0-9673238-1-9. Hall, Richard H., ed. (1997) [Originally published 1964; Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP)]. The UFO Evidence (Reissue ed.). New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. LCCN 64006912. OCLC 39544334. Well-organized, exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases—a classic. Hall, Richard H., ed. (2001). UFO Evidence: Volume II, A 30-year Report. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. LCCN 00055624. OCLC 44391782. Another exhaustive case study, more recent UFO reports. Hendry, Allan (1979). The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating, Evaluating, and Reporting UFO Sightings. Foreword by J. Allen Hynek (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. LCCN 78008211. OCLC 4642190. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases. Hynek, J. Allen (1972). The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. LCCN 76183827. OCLC 341112. Hynek, J. Allen (1997) [Originally published 1977; New York: Dell Publishing Company]. The Hynek UFO Report. New foreword by Jacques Vallée. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. OCLC 3601609. Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek. Jacobs, David M., ed. (2000). UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1032-4. LCCN 00028970. OCLC 43615835. Kérizo, Alain (1997). Les OVNI identifiés: les extraterrestres dans le mystère d'iniquité (in French). Villegenon (Les Guillots, 18260): Éd. Sainte Jeanne d'Arc. ISBN 978-2-9504914-8-0. OCLC 465784973. (associated article) Keyhoe, Donald (1950). The Flying Saucers are Real. New York: Fawcett Publications. LCCN 50004886. OCLC 1674240. Retrieved 2013-09-06. Keyhoe, Donald E. (1953). Flying Saucers from Outer Space (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company. LCCN 53009588. OCLC 181368. Retrieved 2013-05-16. Latagliata, Rosamaria (2006). UFO: verità o menzogna?. Gli atlanti di Voyager (in Italian). Florence: Giunti Editore. ISBN 978-88-09-04698-6. OCLC 635701671. McCarthy, Paul E. (1975). Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. McDonald and the UFO Case Study (Thesis/dissertation) (Internet ed.). Canterbury, CT: Sign Historical Group. OCLC 663722044. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Menzel, Donald H.; Taves, Ernest H. (1977). The UFO Enigma: The Definitive Explanation of the UFO Phenomenon. Introduction by Fred L. Whipple (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-03596-9. LCCN 76016255. OCLC 2597609. Mitchell, Edgar; (2008). The Way of the Explorer. Franklin Lakes: Career Press. ISBN 978-1-56414-977-0. "Reasons to Believe (a collection of short articles by nine different authors)". New York Magazine. March 19 – April 1, 2018. pp. 25–33. Rose, Bill; Buttler, Tony (2004). Flying Saucer Aircraft. Secret Projects. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85780-233-7. OCLC 99774524. Sagan, Carl; Page, Thornton, eds. (1996) [Originally published 1972]. UFO's: A Scientific Debate (Reprint ed.). New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-0196-6. LCCN 72004572. OCLC 35840064. Scully, Frank (1950). Behind the Flying Saucers. New York: Henry Holt and Company. OCLC 1467735. Sheaffer, Robert (1981). The UFO Verdict: Examining the Evidence. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-146-0. LCCN 80084406. OCLC 7364885. Sheaffer, Robert (1998). UFO Sightings: The Evidence. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-213-7. LCCN 98006410. OCLC 38738821. Revised edition of The UFO Verdict. Stanford, Ray (1976). Socorro 'Saucer' in a Pentagon Pantry (1st ed.). Austin, TX: Blueapple Books. ISBN 0-917092-00-7. LCCN 76013768. OCLC 2524239. Sturrock, Peter A.; Holzer, T. E.; Jahn, R.; et al. (1998). "Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports: The Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the Pocantico Conference Center, Tarrytown, New York, September 29 - October 4, 1997" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration. Stanford, CA: Society for Scientific Exploration. 12 (2): 179–229. ISSN 0892-3310. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2013. Sturrock panel report on physical evidence. Sturrock, Peter A. (1999). The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52565-0. LCCN 99066643. OCLC 42645835. Vallée, Jacques (2008) [Originally published 1991; New York: Ballantine Books]. Revelations: Alien Contact and Human Deception. San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books. ISBN 978-1-933665-30-6. LCCN 91091858. OCLC 225866107. Viberti, Pier Giorgio (2010) [Originally published 1997]. Incontri ravvicinati: Avvistamenti e contatti da mondi lontani. Atlanti del sapere (in Italian). Florence: Giunti Editore. ISBN 978-88-09-75032-6. OCLC 800130536. History Clarke, David (2009). The UFO Files: The Inside Story of Real-Life Sightings. Kew: The National Archives. ISBN 978-1-905615-50-6. OCLC 316039535. Reports from the UK government files. Dolan, Richard M. (2000). UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941–1973 (1st ed.). Rochester, NY: Keyhole Publishing Company. ISBN 0-9677995-0-3. LCCN 00691087. OCLC 45546629. Dolan is a professional historian. Downes, Jonathan; Wright, Nigel (2005). The Rising of the Moon (Revised ed.). Bangor, Northern Ireland: Xiphos Books. ISBN 978-0-9544936-5-3. OCLC 70335856. Fawcett, Lawrence; Greenwood, Barry J. (1992) [Originally published 1984 as Clear Intent; Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall]. The UFO Cover-up: What the Government Won't Say. Foreword by J. Allen Hynek (First Fireside ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. LCCN 84009818. OCLC 28384401. Many UFO documents. Good, Timothy (1988). Above Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Cover-Up. Foreword by Lord Hill-Norton (1st Quill ed.). New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-09202-0. LCCN 88208434. OCLC 707516815. Many UFO documents. Good, Timothy (1997) [Originally published 1996]. Beyond Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Security Threat. Foreword by Lord Hill-Norton (Fully revised and updated ed.). London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-34928-7. OCLC 38490850. Good, Timothy (2007). Need to Know: UFOs, the Military, and Intelligence. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. OCLC 180767460. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents Hall, Michael D.; Connors, Wendy A. (1998). Alfred Loedding & the Great Flying Saucer Wave of 1947 (PDF). Albuquerque, NM: White Rose Press. OCLC 41104299. Retrieved 2013-09-07. Keel, John (1996) [Originally published 1970 as UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons]. Operation Trojan Horse (PDF). Lilburn, GA: IllumiNet Press. ISBN 978-0-9626534-6-9. LCCN 96014564. OCLC 34474485. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 20, 2013. Kocher, George (November 1968). UFOs: What to Do (PDF). RAND Corporation. DRU-1571. Retrieved 2013-09-07. UFO historical review, case studies, review of hypotheses, recommendations. Maccabee, Bruce (2000). UFO FBI Connection: The Secret History of the Government's Cover-Up (1st ed.). St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 1-56718-493-6. LCCN 00028277. OCLC 43634902. Randle, Kevin D. (1997). Project Blue Book Exposed (1st ed.). New York: Marlowe & Company. ISBN 1-56924-746-3. LCCN 97072378. OCLC 37047544. Ruppelt, Edward J. (1956). The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. LCCN 56005444. OCLC 1941793. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book. Swords, Michael; Powell, Robert; et al. (2012). UFOs and Government: A Historical Inquiry. San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books. ISBN 978-1-933665-58-0. OCLC 809977863. Weinstein, Dominique F. (February 2001). Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: Eighty Years of Pilot Sightings (PDF). Boulder Creek, CA: National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP). NARCAP TR-04. Retrieved 2013-09-06. Psychology Haines, Richard F., ed. (1979). UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-1228-2. LCCN 79014878. OCLC 5008381. Jung, C G (1978) [Originally published 1958 as Ein moderner Mythus: von Dingen, die am Himmel gesehen werden]. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies. Translation by R.F.C. Hull. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01822-7. LCCN 78004325. OCLC 4762238. Simón, Armando (February 1976). "UFOs: Testing for the existence of Air Force censorship". Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior. 13 (1): 3–5. ISSN 0033-3077. Simón, Armando (1981). "A Nonreactive, Quantitative Study of Mass Behavior with Emphasis on the Cinema as Behavior Catalyst". Psychological Reports. Ammons Scientific. 48 (3): 775–785. doi:10.2466/pr0.1981.48.3.775. ISSN 0033-2941. Simón, Armando (1984). "Psychology and UFOs". Skeptical Inquirer. Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. 8: 355–367. Technology Ford, L. H.; Roman, Thomas A. (1996). "Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries". Physical Review D. 53 (10): 5496–5507. arXiv:gr-qc/9510071?Freely accessible. Bibcode:1996PhRvD..53.5496F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.53.5496. Hill, Paul R. (1995). Unconventional Flying Objects: A Scientific Analysis. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company. ISBN 1-57174-027-9. LCCN 97109204. OCLC 34075199. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer. Krasnikov, S. (2003). "The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts". Physical Review D. 67 (10): 104013. arXiv:gr-qc/0207057?Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003PhRvD..67j4013K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.67.104013. McCampbell, James M. (1976). Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects. Millbrae, CA: Celestial Arts. ISBN 0-89087-144-2. LCCN 76150644. OCLC 2655734. Retrieved 2013-09-13. McCampbell, James M. (1987). "Effects of UFOs Upon People" (PDF). In Evans, Hilary; Spencer, John. UFOs, 1947–1987: The 40-year Search for an Explanation (PDF). London: Fortean Tomes. ISBN 1-870021-02-9. LCCN 88112852. OCLC 18560737. Retrieved 2013-09-13. Rullán, Antonio F. (July 2, 2000). "Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data" (PDF) (Preliminary paper). Retrieved 2013-09-13. Sarfatti, Jack (2006). Super Cosmos: Through Struggles to the Stars. Indianapolis, IN: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4184-7662-5. LCCN 2004095148. OCLC 70962499. Stevens, Henry (2003). Hitler's Flying Saucers: A Guide to German Flying Discs of the Second World War. Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 1-931882-13-4. LCCN 2003271002. OCLC 51731940. Skepticism Plait, Philip C. (2002). "Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye". Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax". Illustrations by Tina Cash Walsh. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. LCCN 2002277382. OCLC 48885221. Ridpath, Ian. "Astronomical Causes of UFOs". Ian Ridpath. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Seeds, Michael (1995) [Originally published 1981]. Horizons: Exploring the Universe (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0-534-24889-6. LCCN 94013521. OCLC 30156735.(Appendix A) Sheaffer, Robert (2012) [Originally published 2011]. Psychic Vibrations: Skeptical Giggles from the Skeptical Inquirer (2nd ed.). Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4636-0157-7. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 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Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie statementMobile view Page semi-protected Unidentified flying object Fro just now WP:RECORDS "WP:RECORDS" redirects here. For WikiProject Record Charts, see WP:RECORD. WikiStats P cartesian graph.svg Main General info Status statistics WikiStats project WikiProject edit counters General statistics Awareness Editors Total size Size comparisons Growth Records Zipf's law comparison Breakdowns Editors by number of edits Editors by article count Time between edits Administrator actions v t e This is a page detailing various records of Wikipedia. Some of them may never be fully known, but it's worth listing the ones we know. Please fill in the gaps, and add your own records (as long as they are sensible)! Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Articles 3 Views 3.1 Cumulative views 3.2 Single-day views 4 Edits 5 Titles 5.1 Article with longest title 5.2 Article with shortest title 6 Links 7 Disambiguation pages 8 Consensus participation 9 Languages 10 Pictures 11 Deletion 12 Categories and templates 13 Numbers 14 High-use pages 15 Database reports 16 See also 17 References Beginnings See also: Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles, Wikipedia:2001 First page: HomePage created on 15 January 2001 First edit: HomePage on 15 January 2001 First named user: January 17: First known named user: User:ScottMoonen[1] First featured article: TheCanonofScripture, MathematicalGrouP, and NewZealand, tied on 23:53, January 21, 2001. However, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was first to be featured on the main page, on February 22, 2004 First Did You Know: Pencil sharpener, posted on February 22, 2004 (created by User:Raul654 on February 15, 2004) First Picture of the Day: Virgin River Narrows, Friday May 14, 2004[2] The English-language Wikipedia's first picture of the day The Virgin River Narrows in Zion National Park, located near Springdale, Utah, is a 16-mile long slot canyon along the Virgin River. Recently rated as number five out of National Geographic's Top 100 American Adventures, it is one of the most rewarding hikes in the world. Photo credit: Jon Sullivan, pdphoto.org Articles Oldest surviving edit (older edits have existed, but have since been lost because of the way UseModWiki worked): UuU (20:08 UTC, 16 January 2001) Longest article: List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation ?(867,401 bytes as of 29 March 2018) Longest article that is not a list: 2016–17 Coupe de France Preliminary Rounds ?(690,191 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest biography article: Eric Walter Elst (354,626 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest featured article: Barack Obama (337,024 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Shortest featured article: Scene7 (8,210 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Articles with the most references/citations: That is a list: List of Hillary Clinton presidential campaign non-political endorsements, 2016 has 2303 as of 24 February 2018 That is a biography: Joseph Stalin has 872 as of 24 February 2018 That is neither a list nor a biography: Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) has 997 as of 24 February 2018 Most references for one sentence: 172 in 21 May 2010 version of Educology. Most hatnotes for one article: 13 October 2017 version of Music recording sales certification. Longest time an article had no references: Reign. Unreferenced from 19 January 2003? to 9 April 2017. Largest article talk page including archives: Talk:Intelligent design (18.8 MB as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a main namespace talk page: Talk:Jesus (131 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace talk page: Wikipedia talk:Requests for adminship (249 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace non-talk page: Wikipedia:Administrators' noticeboard/Incidents (977 as of 24 February 2018) Most successful FA nominations: 169 by Wehwalt (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by featured article nominations) Most DYK (Did You Know?) articles: 1666 by Dr. Blofeld (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by number of DYKs) Views The most viewed pages of Wikipedia's initial years (2001–2007) remain unknown, though the multiyear ranking of most viewed pages gives views for top-100 pages since 2007. In addition, http://stats.grok.se/ gives statistics for specific months in the same years. Cumulative views The most visited pages are the Main Page, followed by Special:Search and Special:Random. The most visited articles (non-special pages) are Wiki, followed by Facebook and then YouTube. However, the consistent popularity of these articles is due in part to people accidentally typing these site names/URLs into a Wikipedia search box (either in the MediaWiki interface or a web browser) when intending to actually visit the sites themselves.[3] The most visited articles that are not about a website are United States, followed by Donald Trump and then Barack Obama.[4] The most visited articles that are neither about a website nor pertaining specifically to the United States are India, followed by World War II and then Michael Jackson.[5] Single-day views The most visited page on a single day is always the Main Page, averaging over 23 million views per day as of 2016, far more views than any other page. The most visited article (non-special page) on a single day is Steve Jobs, which had 7.4 million views on 6 October 2011 and 1.6 million on 7 October.[6] The previous record was Michael Jackson, which had 5.9 million views on 26 June 2009.[7] In both cases, the record views were set one day after the subjects' deaths. The most visited article on a single day that was not just after the subject's death is Donald Trump, which had 6.1 million views on November 9, 2016, the day after he was elected President of the United States.[8] Edits Most edited article:[9] in any namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Main Article namespace: List of WWE personnel (48,027 edits as of 29 March 2018; see Special:MostRevisions) in Talk namespace: Talk:Main Page (140,152 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User namespace: User:Cyde/List of candidates for speedy deletion/Subpage (868,556 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User Talk namespace: User talk:Jimbo Wales (145,953 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia talk: Wikipedia talk:Did you know (78,727 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in MediaWiki talk: MediaWiki talk:Spam-blacklist (17,990 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template: Template:AFC statistics (68,248 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template talk: Template talk:Did you know (351,905 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Portal: Portal:Current events/Sports (41,619 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] Article edited by the largest number of users: Article unedited for the longest time: See WP:Database reports/Forgotten articles Article that was stub for longest time: Cannot be determined, because there is no clear definition of how long the text of an article has to be for the article to stop being a stub. Most edits to one article in a single day: 7 July 2005 London bombings (2,857 edits in 24 hours; the article was receiving up to 15 edits per minute at some stages) Most edits by a user (bot): Cydebot has 5,121,263 edits as of 08:13, 16 March 2016 (UTC).[10] Most edits by a user (non-bot): Ser Amantio di Nicolao (1,583,487 edits as of March 15, 2016)[10] Most edits by an IP address: 68.39.174.238 (22,210 edits as of January 27, 2015) Largest single contributing edit (non-bot): revision 747382971 of List of named minor planets (numerical) (+2,024,726), edited by Rfassbind. Largest article at creation date: List of named minor planets (numerical), 2,024,726 bytes Titles Article with longest title See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (technical restrictions) § Title length See the sortable table below for the articles with the longest titles. Note: The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia limits the length of the titles to 255 bytes, thus some titles that would be longer than the ones in the table below are not included. For instance, the full title of When the Pawn... would be 445 bytes. Characters counting spaces Characters excluding spaces Article title 185 155 To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to take certain Federal lands located in El Dorado County, California, into trust for the benefit of the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians 182 182 Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon 180 153 Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders Longest full typed number with an article: 9223372036854775807[11] Article with shortest title A number of Wikipedia articles have single-character titles. There are 36 articles with titles of only one ASCII character in length: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z A further 123 articles have titles of a single Unicode character: À, Ã, È, Ê, Ì, Í, Î, Ï, Ò, Õ, Ú, Û, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? ,? ,?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? Links Page linked to by most other pages: Wikipedia:Sandbox Most linked article in main namespace: IP address Article with most links: Article in most categories: Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, in 286 categories as of 21 February 2018. The 162 top articles are international conventions with a category for each participant. Most categories for a non-convention article: Winston Churchill (131), Nicolae Iorga (122) and Elon Musk (122) Most external links in whole article: Perhaps List of MeSH codes (D02), 2,542 external links, all to the same site (April 25, 2014) Oldest surviving red link: Hammarön from Hammarö Municipality, May 25, 2004 to November 23, 2015 Most linked to image: Information.svg (6,639,021 pages as of 24 February 2018) (see Special:MostLinkedFiles) Disambiguation pages In May 2014 the disambiguation pages with the largest numbers of entries were:[12] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries St. Mary's Church 584 Communist Party (disambiguation) 569 Aliabad 520 The largest with diverse entries:[13] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries Saint Paul (disambiguation) 232 Star (disambiguation) 221 Saint-Pierre 218 Consensus participation 687 – WikiProject Usability/Main Page 600 – Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Default State RFC#Question 1: When a new account is created, should the preference be set to disable VE ("opt-in") or to enable VE ("opt-out")? 567 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Newyorkbrad 541 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Giano II 488 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Raul654 424 – Wikipedia:Attribution/Poll 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Deskana 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2006/Vote/Can't sleep, clown will eat me 383 – Wikipedia:Requests for adminship/Danny 2 358 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Rebecca 341 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Fred Bauder 327 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/FayssalF 326 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Mindspillage See generally Wikipedia:Times that 300 or more Wikipedians supported something Languages Article in largest number of languages (apart from Main Page): excluding test wikis: Finland in 285 languages (See Special:MostInterwikis) including test wikis: Kurów in 345 languages (See Stats) Featured article on the most different language Wikipedias: Mars (19) Featured article in largest number of language Wikipedias but not English: World War II (18) Featured article on the highest percentage of different language Wikipedias: (fill in if found) Language with highest percentage of featured articles: (fill in if found) Pictures Article with most pictures: List of B8 polytopes with 2,429 images (Also User:Tuvalkin/BSiconRS with a browser-crushing 18,558) Picture in most articles: File:Information.svg (Information.svg) is used 4,776,141 times Counting only links from main-namespace articles, File:Question book-new.svg (Question book-new.svg) is used 407,468 times First picture: (fill in if found) Most edited picture: (fill in if found) Oldest picture on record: File:The Crusades (1935 film) video boxart.jpg created on 08:18, August 14, 2002. Oldest featured picture: (fill in if found) Image sizes: Largest:File:N. M. Price - Sir Walter Scott - Guy Mannering - At the Kaim of Derncleugh original scan.png at 94,693,415 bytes Smallest File:1px f8fcff.gif at 35 bytes Average size (as of February 2012): 229,065 bytes Deletion Longest undetected vandalism in article: Piateda, vandalized on 2 July 2007 and repaired on 27 April 2016, after 8 years, 9 months, 25 days. Longest undetected vandalism on a redirect page: List of albums by the Beatles, vandalized on 25 March 2007 and repaired on 13 September 2016, after 9 years, 5 months, 19 days. Longest undetected vandalism in media files: File:Burnin' Up Single Cover.JPG, vandalized on 25 September 2008 and repaired on 20 January 2015, after 6 years, 3 months, 26 days. Longest undetected copyvio: Gene Bearden, added 20 March 2004 (revision deleted), removed 10 September 2012. Total length of time undetected: 8 years, 5 months, 20 days. Longest undetected hoax article: Bine (mythology) lasted 12 years, 4 months, and 1 day. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia Most deleted (and recreated) article: Daniel Brandt – 40 times created and deleted. Article with most deletion discussions (VfD, AfD and DRV): Gay Nigger Association of America – 41 (deleted, later redone). See Wikipedia:LAME#Deletion wars. Longest deleted article: Probability derivations for making low hands in Omaha hold 'em (305 kB), which was transwikied to Wikibooks as a result of this AFD. Categories and templates First category: Category:World War II was created by User:Raul654 at 03:59 on 30 May 2004 Largest category: Category:All stub articles. (Of course, Category:Articles includes almost all articles within its subcategories.) First template: Template:Periodic table (oldest surviving – there may be older templates that have been deleted. Also, while it was created in 2002, it was originally in the mainspace and was moved to the template namespace in 2010.) Largest template: Template:Pfam2PDBsum (1.7MB, unused due to size) Largest navigation template: Maybe Template:Shakespeare's plays with 1803 wikilinks as of December 2017. It displays 33 other navigation templates but is only used in four articles.[1] Numbers 100,000th article: Hastings, New Zealand 500,000th article: Forced settlements in the Soviet Union (originally entitled "Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union") Millionth article: Jordanhill railway station 2M article: El Hormiguero 3M article: Beate Eriksen 4M article: Ezbet el-Borg 5M article: Persoonia terminalis 100,000th user: User:Wakmah Millionth user: User:Jchriscampbell See also Wikipedia:Milestone statistics High-use pages Most linked-to categories Most linked-to files Most linked-to pages Most transcluded pages Pages with the most interwikis Pages with the most revisions (article pages) Database reports Long pages (all pages on the project) Talk pages by size Most-watched pages Most-watched pages by namespace Most-watched users Pages with the most revisions Long stubs See also History of Wikipedia Wikipedia:Statistics Wikipedia:Article traffic jumps References Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles Wikipedia:Picture of the day/May 2004 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2013-02-04/Special report Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics". October 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-05. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics: Michael Jackson". June 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-30. "Traffic report: President-elect Trump". November 26, 2016. Wikipedia:Database reports/Pages with the most revisions Calculated using the MediaWiki API; using a URL like this one relevant part of Category:Integers, retrieved 25 November 2016. Schneider, Todd (30 May 2014). "What Is the Longest Disambiguation Page on Wikipedia?". Future Tense. Slate. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Article includes links to a Google spreadsheet of largest 1000 and a .csv file of the whole dataset used Schneider, Todd. "Top 1000 Longest Disambiguation Pages on Wikipedia". Google Docs. Retrieved 31 December 2017. 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f f just now sexy jk dude 3 days ago hi i just had sex with a girl and i liked it. raper 2 months ago i don't like your website SG 2 weeks ago now started coding,how much can i also make a month michael 2 months ago Funny how Mr. Evan taught C++ but never learned it haha ??????????? Meet Patel 4 months ago cooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooool SG 2 weeks ago He never learned, nor taught, C++. The high school students went to their homes to play with C++ and VB, learning it on their own. However, the computer teacher, Mr. Evans only knew Fortran, which gave him his job. d1no 3 months ago I am mexican Roberto (Rubber-toe) 4 months ago a 4 months ago How much can you make a day? Henrik 6 months ago Why do people think that you don't know what I do is just a little Carson 6 months ago esketit 7 months ago I want to be a code some day falloutXmaster21 8 months ago You're already code. This world is a computer simulation. ass and titties 6 months ago Doesn't make sense bruh AAAAAAA 7 months ago you don't understand what he means. technically he could be right J 2 months ago I wanna know the stroke ration!! anon 8 months ago Ok xxbigdickxx 8 months ago k Xxx_MEATYPU$$Y_xxX 7 months ago Hi I am a 7 year old who programs with 4chan. I am earning $69 per hour as well working for CNN to hack the accounts of the public who do not like them. I really want to buy my own Minecraft PC and a gaming setup so I can become a professional Minecraft player, but my mom is allergic to computers so I also need a new house. Teh arrrtickle halpe me awt a lawt, thx a lot for halpibng Anonymouse 9 months ago I forgot to add that I am also very good at coding. i use the scratch and i can sell my projekts for around $1000Yen each. They are all about my favorite game, mincecraft. I really likem the game and am considering suing microsoft for buying the game. However, to do that I need money. I got this from hackin this cite. Thx! An0n 9 months ago I am soooooo srry guys. I meant south korean won, not yen 4chan Cancer 9 months ago I am 11 and I already stated programming at home 9 months ago I am 69 and looking for a jew 95_YEar_Old 7 months ago Amazing blog! I'm definitely going to follow :D Burgos 9 months ago Well it depends on the kind of project which language you choose to go for programming and many other criterias for that. Thanks for the share. mrunal 1 year ago Hi Par, I live in London UK, and was doing some research into getting into IT field and more specifically programming, your insights are amazing and I have learn't so much from your blog. Thanks George Ohlden 1 year ago Nice read! We prepared a special report with data for 2017. You can compare your salary depend on a language of programming: https://challengerocket.com/blog/top-10-of-programming-languages-with-the-highest-salaries-in-2017.html ChallengeRocket 1 year ago Im 14 and im working on Getting into programming. I've done small things, on scratch and on code.org, however i want to step up my game. I want this for my career. Where should i start? 1 year ago I'm 10 and I didn't start programming yet Meiling 1 year ago 7 months ago im 14 years old and i make 35000 working at the weekends programming in C++ jackson 1 year ago I'm 12 and I make 45000 working weekends programming in Java, C++, PHP, C++, FORTRAN, LISP, COBOL, C#, and ASSEMBLY all simultaneously. mark 1 year ago Are you kidding me? I am in my mother's womb, and I make 115,000 by slamming my keyboard against the wall until a pretty picture appears on the screen. Weldin 1 year ago Hahaha, nice one Omair Shafiq 1 year ago Man y'all don't even know Programemrs Jqwan 1 year ago i think its just less. because many big youtubers earn 100,000+ easily Susman 1 year ago yes a 11 year can code. Better get started at a young age and its fun 1 year ago 7 months ago true 7 months ago it the best job on the world 1 year ago can a 11 year old code? Landon LeJeune 1 year ago you can code big boobies and how you fucked my mother ass 6 months ago CANCER YEAH IM POKEMON GO KID. BOOBS?WHAT POKEMON IS THAT cancer 11 yr old 7 months ago Of course! 1 year ago Am Monalisa and l want to be a computer programming Monalisa 1 year ago Will you work for TEch Companies, and if you do, will you get free gadgets?? Ibbi 1 year ago Why would you want free gadgets when you're making 100k you jew sss 6 months ago it"s called code Louisville, they use Treehouse as a teaching tool. Is it good enough to get in the business with? larry Jones 1 year ago I'm 13 and I'm a Java expert. Currently developing Android applications. None of them are released yet, but I've been working on an app for around 5 months. It'll be free. I don't care much about money. But this actually encouraged me a lot. AbAppletic 1 year ago sure you are sss 6 months ago I'm 5 and I'm a java expert, C++ expert, C# expert, PHP expert, Fortran expert, COBOL expert, Assembly Expert, and VBA expert. mark 1 year ago hey im 16 and im trying to learn coding, could you tell me how you learned to code? could you please reply t my email amal_kiani@outlook.com amal kiani 1 year ago you could learn how to code by going to codecademy.com 1 year ago Apologies for the dumb question but what difference does it make where you reside? How much does a programmer from a very reprehensible place make? Harry 1 year ago 100k means nothing anymore. Lawer: 200-400k Surgeon: 400-1M+ Dentist: 300k Get the picture? Don't waste your time with 'tech'. Its a dead end just like engineering. The Truth 1 year ago Where did you get these numbers from? They earn much less than that. A good coder doesn't rely on the job salary only. You can make more money from making multiple apps or being a freelancer. And depending on your experience you can make much more than 100k, I know programmers who make 200k-400k. And some companies give you stock options which means more money. Notch made 2 billion from Minecraft. Do you know a lawyer or surgeon who made anything close to that number? The richest person in the world, Bill Gates got there because of Microsoft, a tech company. Tech is still alive and is only getting bigger and there is huge demand for good programmers all the time. zzz 6 months ago Yeah, that's a great idea. Let's all stop working in the tech industry! No more smartphone, laptop, PCs, software, improvements on AI, and I could go on like this forever. Get the picture? Kay 1 year ago what type of lawyer? Most lawyers do not make that kind of salary. mark 1 year ago You know that not everyone gets to be a lawyer or a surgeon, right? Average american people get around 60k a year so 100k is still pretty much. The real truth 1 year ago You know some people like me just hate working with people and that's why they are tech guys or IT specialists. For me 100k is still a lot, lot of money SomeGuy 1 year ago how much do they make with out salaries like 50 dollar an hour or so on he has no name 1 year ago What you're not mentioning here is that as a valuable Senior Engineer, you probably will be working insane hours, and if you are not careful, you will be doing it on a salary. Even if it seems big, it won't be that much larger by the hour than mid level programmers are making working a straight 40. You also will be expected to sign a "you own my entire brain" Intellectual Property agreement that will prevent you from doing anything that your company doesn't then own all the rights to. This may well be true even if, by some sheer act of willpower, you work a 90 hour week, then put in a 20 hour week on your own idea. If you attempt this, it will, in fact, eventually kill you. You will also pay an insane level of taxes, unless you can convert them somehow to capital gains earnings. If you don't make it to management by 45, you probably will get fired, or put under impossible conditions until you quit. There is only so good you can get and there is hard salary ceiling unless you get into a startup or start your own business that's successful. You should also know that if you do attempt a startup, or work for one, you're chances of going back to a big fat corporate america job are significantly reduced. Companies know that you want to run your own ship or be a principal in a big ship, not a good worker slave, so they will hire a less experienced, lower paid, worse developer to do the job, even if that means hiring 3 people instead of 1. Also, know that those big corporations were caught conspiring with each other not to hire current or former employees of the other large companies. Google, Facebook, Oracle, and Apple were among those involved. So once you take a big job, save a lot and be well prepared when and if you take the leap to be your own boss. You will also need to take the time to learn all the business rules, regulations, tax stuff. This is not to be underestimated, it's a huge amount of stuff. Sam Allen 1 year ago Plus that you suck 2 years ago Is ther a one answer 2 years ago I'm 17 i was wondering how much i could make for a side job on programming and just working with computers in general possibly turning it into my own business i know HTML / CSS / Javascript / Lua / and some foundations of Java i also am in the progress of 3D Modeling and Rendering i am currently making you tube intros and Models for Garry`s mod but i don't charge anything due to not being of age for a credit card / pay pale. Jeremiah 2 years ago money momey money RMB 2 years ago im 12 years old and i want to do programming as a job when i get older. i wanna make a lot of money because i want to buy a cat and i also want to build a separate house for my cat because my mom is allergic to cats. thank you this was helpful Cassandra Peters 2 years ago this sounds dope af cassie 2 years ago Im 12 years old and a started with python programking a few months ago. Nothing too hard i understand it and everything but after reading all this i dont think i can do it. My mother was a validictorian with a 4.0 in high school she is a psychologist now and my dad was a 4.0 in college he took C++ and said it was the hardest class he took. Do any of you think i can do it becasue i just need a little motivation to keep working on programming. Anonymous 2 years ago im 14 in middle school just started python i dont care what anyone says or how hard it is you can do it and so can i so keep on going 2 years ago I am a front-end programmer (HTML, CSS, Bootstrap, JQuery)... I am a 17 year old and I feel like I am too late, as I should now be a professional programmer :( However, I am still learning Jscript and PHP as I want to be a free-lance web developer or even start a ready-script company... Khalid 2 years ago Oh, you have more than enough time to learn to program and become a professional programmer. I don't know what your best bet for getting there is, but I can tell you that at seventeen years old, you've got plenty of time to learn. I see a lot of older people (in their 30s and above) in introductory programming classes at school, just starting to get their Bachelor of Science. Another thing to note is that those introductory classes are actually meant for people who have zero prior programming knowledge - some of the first things done in those classes are learning how to declare variables and write Hello World programs. I'm not going to say that starting earlier wouldn't be an advantage, but you're already working in the field which is advantageous. Don't be discouraged, don't quit before you've started. It's a long journey to become a great programmer, but if you're interested in it, it is a lot of fun to do and so very worth it. Best of luck! Matthew 2 years ago Ohhhh ma gawd i try to do ittttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt, but it dont workkkkkkkk, what the button to do the jump thing? juan 2 years ago See the great thing about programming though is you do actually make more than doctors. Since they spend most their life paying off insane school debt and at the same time paying for insanely high malpractice insurance. As a programmer you most likely will make more than 70% of the lawyers out there and definitely more than any lawyer who is just starting out or not a partner of their firm. AND as for making less than a banker. It's hard to get into that field and if you consider 'a banker' to be someone who works in a bank you will be making more than them as well. With the Opportunity to build something and sell it for millions. Steven 2 years ago hi everyone i am 13 years old.im learning c++ for 2 months.i want to go abroad to MIT.How can i win scholarship? Nickolas 2 years ago Good job bro. If you want to go to MIT I'm a be real with you, your going to want to make sure you do not mess around in school. Make sure you go for some honor classes and a 4.0 GPA or higher. I would recommend taking bio, chem, and psychics. Also make sure you get really good at math because a part of computers is being pretty good at math for whatever you want to do. IF you go to MIT first your going to need the average GPA to get in, extra circulars, and good SAT scores. BTW extra circular can be like math club and merit scholarship club stuff like that. If you don't want to do sports then don't do it. I'm a be honest to money is a big factor, depending what level of education you want, I would recommend going to a school that is cheap. Another thing I want to include is if you get your BA in some kind of computer major, going to grad school to MIT might give you a higher chance. Messg me kik:nacho218 Ignacio-Manuel Atilano 2 years ago Your 13 years old man. You still have at least 2-3 years before you have to start worrying about college. As for finding a scholarship in 13 years. It's called google I hear there is even an app. But at the end of the day if you don't get any scholarships for good grades/ sports taking out college loans is not that bad. Your family can be piss poor and you can still go to college. Steven 2 years ago Make sure to change jobs every few years. That will give you a twice better raise than a promotion. Coderplusplus 3 years ago I already am trying to learn it at a young age corb 3 years ago i did not known they earn that much money they are so so lucky mey 3 years ago It's 2014. I'm in Canada, I've been a programmer for 12 years. I can code in all .NET languages, C++, PHP, Java, Javascript, and many more. I've never made more than 47k/year and I have never received a raise or a promotion. I have always had to leave secure employment to upgrade my pay-cheque. Joshua Richet 3 years ago Well you're in Canada, that's the problem. Move to the USA if you want to make the big bucks. sss 6 months ago hi Joshua!This is my first year of programming.i have only worked as programmer 8 months.I already received over 100000!Only thing thing i can recommend is be creative and choose only one language.I had worked on a channel program for 1 month and now i am working on video games.i always use c++ Nick Thompson 2 years ago can i work with you cool mey 3 years ago how old do people usually start programming, i feel like i am already late and i am starting at 16 alejandro 3 years ago My brother started around 16 and now he's making $500 per month Sky 3 years ago that is really bad money my brother makes 2000 a month sometimes as a firefighter and a coder cadyn 1 year ago i was 12 when i started though i feel that doesnt really mater a lot. It depends on talent and will. Jari 3 years ago In Argentina also ALL programmers are badly paid :( Misery 4 years ago did you really have to bring up dr. robotnik? ohh the horror. he was definitely not making $100K. Zehra 4 years ago I make $170k in the SF Bay Area, and still mainly use the C language, as I did when I started 15 years ago, but past about $120k the amount of time which I spend programming steadily decreased as I moved into technical leadership roles and spent time coordinating with other teams, making plans with product management, doing architectural review, etc. Technical Lead, not Programmer 4 years ago I really don't care that much about the money but is it a fun job? Do you go to work everyday with a smile and really for another challange or is it a really stressful job. Ruben 1 year ago In Portugal ALL programmers are badly paid! Pedro 4 years ago You can't compare the standard of living in Portugal and that of the bay or even other European cities... Ric 4 years ago But Mr Evans did you some good, didn't he? If everyone is looking for the bottom dollar, we all lose. Chris 4 years ago So true Onelove 2 years ago I suspect Mr. Evans could have made a comeback with Python or Ruby. over 40 4 years ago g payscale.com? It can tell you very specifically how much you should make based on location, programming language, years exp, etc. It does this by crowdsourcing salary dat compare the standard of living in P 1 year ago compare the standard of living in P 1 year ago Have you tried using payscale.com? It can tell you very specifically how much you should make based on location, programming language, years exp, etc. It does this by crowdsourcing salary data from other developers. Alex 4 years ago oh my daaaiiise fam. Jelly 3 years ago How Much Money Do You Make Programming? Posted 4 years ago I'll get right to the point. About $100,000 a year. That's the answer if you have been programming for 4+ years and work in a major tech hub like the Bay area or NYC. Of course your mileage WILL vary. Your salary is dependent on your skill level, your experience and your negotiating power. Most programmers will make between $40,000 and $120,000. Junior prgrammers, or people starting out in smaller cities can expect to make around $30,000-$50,000. Most average programmers are bringing in around $60,000-$85,000 a year. Senior programmers will typically reach $100,000. And highly valued senior programmers can easily make $120,000-$150,000+. Some programmers are even granted stock options or stock units in the company they work for. The first engineering hire for a startup can get up to 5% of the company, and if the startup does well that can turn into millions. Try my newest app, Job Bytes for iOS. Your cheat sheet to the programming interview! Free, check it out now. Programming can make you some solid dough, that is for sure. But not every programmer is making six figures, and I don't personally know any programmers who have made millions. In small towns even good programmers might not make six figures. The salaries can vary wildly depending on what city you are in. But I have worked in Austin, TX, New York City and the Bay area, and I can tell you salaries in those three places are very similar. And from what you can see on websites like Glassdoor, most mid-level programmers are netting between 60k-100k. Of course it's not just about how well you code, it's about what language you are using. To maintain market salary, it is important to stay up to date with programming languages. Languages change fast, and in our industry you will go through 5-10 languages in your career. If you do not keep up with it, someone new will come in to fill your shoes. Story time. In high school I had a computer science teacher named Mr. Evans, and he would always tell us stories about 'being in the industry'. Mr. Evans said that they will hire you for Fortran, keep you around till you are 40, then fire you. He said Fortran was the greatest language invented and everything that came after it sucked. But when we'd get home from school we would play with C++ and Visual Basic, two of the most popular languages at that time. If Mr. Evans would have learned C++ or VB, he probably could have gotten a better job, but instead he was stuck teaching high school kids. Poor Mr. Evans was definitely not making 100k. So you see, there is good money you can make programming. It can be challenging to learn how to program, but once you do it is very rewarding. You won't get paid like a doctor, lawyer or banker, but you (usually) won't be expected to work insane hours, defend murderers or swindle people for money. And sometimes there is even free lunch! Check out my #1 post: Which Programming Language Should You Learn To Make Money? Tweet Tags: About the author Dev/Code/Hack is a technology and business blog by me, Par Trivedi. I'm a software engineer and I've been writing code and managing teams for over a decade. This blog serves as a way to share thoughts and ideas about the tech/startup community, and also to educate newcomers to software development. Follow @Parito 133 Comments Your name Your comment WP:RECORDS "WP:RECORDS" redirects here. For WikiProject Record Charts, see WP:RECORD. WikiStats P cartesian graph.svg Main General info Status statistics WikiStats project WikiProject edit counters General statistics Awareness Editors Total size Size comparisons Growth Records Zipf's law comparison Breakdowns Editors by number of edits Editors by article count Time between edits Administrator actions v t e This is a page detailing various records of Wikipedia. Some of them may never be fully known, but it's worth listing the ones we know. Please fill in the gaps, and add your own records (as long as they are sensible)! Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Articles 3 Views 3.1 Cumulative views 3.2 Single-day views 4 Edits 5 Titles 5.1 Article with longest title 5.2 Article with shortest title 6 Links 7 Disambiguation pages 8 Consensus participation 9 Languages 10 Pictures 11 Deletion 12 Categories and templates 13 Numbers 14 High-use pages 15 Database reports 16 See also 17 References Beginnings See also: Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles, Wikipedia:2001 First page: HomePage created on 15 January 2001 First edit: HomePage on 15 January 2001 First named user: January 17: First known named user: User:ScottMoonen[1] First featured article: TheCanonofScripture, MathematicalGrouP, and NewZealand, tied on 23:53, January 21, 2001. However, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was first to be featured on the main page, on February 22, 2004 First Did You Know: Pencil sharpener, posted on February 22, 2004 (created by User:Raul654 on February 15, 2004) First Picture of the Day: Virgin River Narrows, Friday May 14, 2004[2] The English-language Wikipedia's first picture of the day The Virgin River Narrows in Zion National Park, located near Springdale, Utah, is a 16-mile long slot canyon along the Virgin River. Recently rated as number five out of National Geographic's Top 100 American Adventures, it is one of the most rewarding hikes in the world. Photo credit: Jon Sullivan, pdphoto.org Articles Oldest surviving edit (older edits have existed, but have since been lost because of the way UseModWiki worked): UuU (20:08 UTC, 16 January 2001) Longest article: List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation ?(867,401 bytes as of 29 March 2018) Longest article that is not a list: 2016–17 Coupe de France Preliminary Rounds ?(690,191 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest biography article: Eric Walter Elst (354,626 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest featured article: Barack Obama (337,024 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Shortest featured article: Scene7 (8,210 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Articles with the most references/citations: That is a list: List of Hillary Clinton presidential campaign non-political endorsements, 2016 has 2303 as of 24 February 2018 That is a biography: Joseph Stalin has 872 as of 24 February 2018 That is neither a list nor a biography: Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) has 997 as of 24 February 2018 Most references for one sentence: 172 in 21 May 2010 version of Educology. Most hatnotes for one article: 13 October 2017 version of Music recording sales certification. Longest time an article had no references: Reign. Unreferenced from 19 January 2003? to 9 April 2017. Largest article talk page including archives: Talk:Intelligent design (18.8 MB as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a main namespace talk page: Talk:Jesus (131 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace talk page: Wikipedia talk:Requests for adminship (249 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace non-talk page: Wikipedia:Administrators' noticeboard/Incidents (977 as of 24 February 2018) Most successful FA nominations: 169 by Wehwalt (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by featured article nominations) Most DYK (Did You Know?) articles: 1666 by Dr. Blofeld (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by number of DYKs) Views The most viewed pages of Wikipedia's initial years (2001–2007) remain unknown, though the multiyear ranking of most viewed pages gives views for top-100 pages since 2007. In addition, http://stats.grok.se/ gives statistics for specific months in the same years. Cumulative views The most visited pages are the Main Page, followed by Special:Search and Special:Random. The most visited articles (non-special pages) are Wiki, followed by Facebook and then YouTube. However, the consistent popularity of these articles is due in part to people accidentally typing these site names/URLs into a Wikipedia search box (either in the MediaWiki interface or a web browser) when intending to actually visit the sites themselves.[3] The most visited articles that are not about a website are United States, followed by Donald Trump and then Barack Obama.[4] The most visited articles that are neither about a website nor pertaining specifically to the United States are India, followed by World War II and then Michael Jackson.[5] Single-day views The most visited page on a single day is always the Main Page, averaging over 23 million views per day as of 2016, far more views than any other page. The most visited article (non-special page) on a single day is Steve Jobs, which had 7.4 million views on 6 October 2011 and 1.6 million on 7 October.[6] The previous record was Michael Jackson, which had 5.9 million views on 26 June 2009.[7] In both cases, the record views were set one day after the subjects' deaths. The most visited article on a single day that was not just after the subject's death is Donald Trump, which had 6.1 million views on November 9, 2016, the day after he was elected President of the United States.[8] Edits Most edited article:[9] in any namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Main Article namespace: List of WWE personnel (48,027 edits as of 29 March 2018; see Special:MostRevisions) in Talk namespace: Talk:Main Page (140,152 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User namespace: User:Cyde/List of candidates for speedy deletion/Subpage (868,556 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User Talk namespace: User talk:Jimbo Wales (145,953 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia talk: Wikipedia talk:Did you know (78,727 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in MediaWiki talk: MediaWiki talk:Spam-blacklist (17,990 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template: Template:AFC statistics (68,248 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template talk: Template talk:Did you know (351,905 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Portal: Portal:Current events/Sports (41,619 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] Article edited by the largest number of users: Article unedited for the longest time: See WP:Database reports/Forgotten articles Article that was stub for longest time: Cannot be determined, because there is no clear definition of how long the text of an article has to be for the article to stop being a stub. Most edits to one article in a single day: 7 July 2005 London bombings (2,857 edits in 24 hours; the article was receiving up to 15 edits per minute at some stages) Most edits by a user (bot): Cydebot has 5,121,263 edits as of 08:13, 16 March 2016 (UTC).[10] Most edits by a user (non-bot): Ser Amantio di Nicolao (1,583,487 edits as of March 15, 2016)[10] Most edits by an IP address: 68.39.174.238 (22,210 edits as of January 27, 2015) Largest single contributing edit (non-bot): revision 747382971 of List of named minor planets (numerical) (+2,024,726), edited by Rfassbind. Largest article at creation date: List of named minor planets (numerical), 2,024,726 bytes Titles Article with longest title See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (technical restrictions) § Title length See the sortable table below for the articles with the longest titles. Note: The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia limits the length of the titles to 255 bytes, thus some titles that would be longer than the ones in the table below are not included. For instance, the full title of When the Pawn... would be 445 bytes. Characters counting spaces Characters excluding spaces Article title 185 155 To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to take certain Federal lands located in El Dorado County, California, into trust for the benefit of the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians 182 182 Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon 180 153 Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders Longest full typed number with an article: 9223372036854775807[11] Article with shortest title A number of Wikipedia articles have single-character titles. There are 36 articles with titles of only one ASCII character in length: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z A further 123 articles have titles of a single Unicode character: À, Ã, È, Ê, Ì, Í, Î, Ï, Ò, Õ, Ú, Û, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? ,? ,?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? Links Page linked to by most other pages: Wikipedia:Sandbox Most linked article in main namespace: IP address Article with most links: Article in most categories: Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, in 286 categories as of 21 February 2018. The 162 top articles are international conventions with a category for each participant. Most categories for a non-convention article: Winston Churchill (131), Nicolae Iorga (122) and Elon Musk (122) Most external links in whole article: Perhaps List of MeSH codes (D02), 2,542 external links, all to the same site (April 25, 2014) Oldest surviving red link: Hammarön from Hammarö Municipality, May 25, 2004 to November 23, 2015 Most linked to image: Information.svg (6,639,021 pages as of 24 February 2018) (see Special:MostLinkedFiles) Disambiguation pages In May 2014 the disambiguation pages with the largest numbers of entries were:[12] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries St. Mary's Church 584 Communist Party (disambiguation) 569 Aliabad 520 The largest with diverse entries:[13] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries Saint Paul (disambiguation) 232 Star (disambiguation) 221 Saint-Pierre 218 Consensus participation 687 – WikiProject Usability/Main Page 600 – Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Default State RFC#Question 1: When a new account is created, should the preference be set to disable VE ("opt-in") or to enable VE ("opt-out")? 567 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Newyorkbrad 541 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Giano II 488 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Raul654 424 – Wikipedia:Attribution/Poll 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Deskana 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2006/Vote/Can't sleep, clown will eat me 383 – Wikipedia:Requests for adminship/Danny 2 358 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Rebecca 341 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Fred Bauder 327 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/FayssalF 326 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Mindspillage See generally Wikipedia:Times that 300 or more Wikipedians supported something Languages Article in largest number of languages (apart from Main Page): excluding test wikis: Finland in 285 languages (See Special:MostInterwikis) including test wikis: Kurów in 345 languages (See Stats) Featured article on the most different language Wikipedias: Mars (19) Featured article in largest number of language Wikipedias but not English: World War II (18) Featured article on the highest percentage of different language Wikipedias: (fill in if found) Language with highest percentage of featured articles: (fill in if found) Pictures Article with most pictures: List of B8 polytopes with 2,429 images (Also User:Tuvalkin/BSiconRS with a browser-crushing 18,558) Picture in most articles: File:Information.svg (Information.svg) is used 4,776,141 times Counting only links from main-namespace articles, File:Question book-new.svg (Question book-new.svg) is used 407,468 times First picture: (fill in if found) Most edited picture: (fill in if found) Oldest picture on record: File:The Crusades (1935 film) video boxart.jpg created on 08:18, August 14, 2002. Oldest featured picture: (fill in if found) Image sizes: Largest:File:N. M. Price - Sir Walter Scott - Guy Mannering - At the Kaim of Derncleugh original scan.png at 94,693,415 bytes Smallest File:1px f8fcff.gif at 35 bytes Average size (as of February 2012): 229,065 bytes Deletion Longest undetected vandalism in article: Piateda, vandalized on 2 July 2007 and repaired on 27 April 2016, after 8 years, 9 months, 25 days. Longest undetected vandalism on a redirect page: List of albums by the Beatles, vandalized on 25 March 2007 and repaired on 13 September 2016, after 9 years, 5 months, 19 days. Longest undetected vandalism in media files: File:Burnin' Up Single Cover.JPG, vandalized on 25 September 2008 and repaired on 20 January 2015, after 6 years, 3 months, 26 days. Longest undetected copyvio: Gene Bearden, added 20 March 2004 (revision deleted), removed 10 September 2012. Total length of time undetected: 8 years, 5 months, 20 days. Longest undetected hoax article: Bine (mythology) lasted 12 years, 4 months, and 1 day. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia Most deleted (and recreated) article: Daniel Brandt – 40 times created and deleted. Article with most deletion discussions (VfD, AfD and DRV): Gay Nigger Association of America – 41 (deleted, later redone). See Wikipedia:LAME#Deletion wars. Longest deleted article: Probability derivations for making low hands in Omaha hold 'em (305 kB), which was transwikied to Wikibooks as a result of this AFD. Categories and templates First category: Category:World War II was created by User:Raul654 at 03:59 on 30 May 2004 Largest category: Category:All stub articles. (Of course, Category:Articles includes almost all articles within its subcategories.) First template: Template:Periodic table (oldest surviving – there may be older templates that have been deleted. Also, while it was created in 2002, it was originally in the mainspace and was moved to the template namespace in 2010.) Largest template: Template:Pfam2PDBsum (1.7MB, unused due to size) Largest navigation template: Maybe Template:Shakespeare's plays with 1803 wikilinks as of December 2017. It displays 33 other navigation templates but is only used in four articles.[1] Numbers 100,000th article: Hastings, New Zealand 500,000th article: Forced settlements in the Soviet Union (originally entitled "Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union") Millionth article: Jordanhill railway station 2M article: El Hormiguero 3M article: Beate Eriksen 4M article: Ezbet el-Borg 5M article: Persoonia terminalis 100,000th user: User:Wakmah Millionth user: User:Jchriscampbell See also Wikipedia:Milestone statistics High-use pages Most linked-to categories Most linked-to files Most linked-to pages Most transcluded pages Pages with the most interwikis Pages with the most revisions (article pages) Database reports Long pages (all pages on the project) Talk pages by size Most-watched pages Most-watched pages by namespace Most-watched users Pages with the most revisions Long stubs See also History of Wikipedia Wikipedia:Statistics Wikipedia:Article traffic jumps References Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles Wikipedia:Picture of the day/May 2004 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2013-02-04/Special report Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics". October 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-05. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics: Michael Jackson". June 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-30. "Traffic report: President-elect Trump". November 26, 2016. Wikipedia:Database reports/Pages with the most revisions Calculated using the MediaWiki API; using a URL like this one relevant part of Category:Integers, retrieved 25 November 2016. Schneider, Todd (30 May 2014). "What Is the Longest Disambiguation Page on Wikipedia?". Future Tense. Slate. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Article includes links to a Google spreadsheet of largest 1000 and a .csv file of the whole dataset used Schneider, Todd. "Top 1000 Longest Disambiguation Pages on Wikipedia". Google Docs. Retrieved 31 December 2017. Categories: Wikipedia statisticsWikipedia history Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inProject pageTalkReadEditView historySearch Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikidata Page semi-protected Unidentified flying object From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ufo) For other uses, see Unidentified flying object (disambiguation). "UFO" redirects here. For other uses, see UFO (disambiguation). "ufo" redirects here. For the genus of gall-wasps, see Ufo (genus). Photograph of an alleged UFO in Passaic, New Jersey, taken on July 31, 1952. US F/A-18 Footage of a UFO (circled in red) An unidentified flying object or UFO is an object perceived in the sky that is not readily identified. Most UFOs are later identified as conventional objects or phenomena. The term is widely used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial craft. Contents 1 Terminology 2 Studies 3 Early history 4 Investigations 4.1 Project Sign 4.2 Project Grudge 4.3 USAF Regulation 200-2 4.4 Project Blue Book 4.5 Scientific studies 4.6 United States 4.6.1 Post-1947 sightings 4.6.2 Project Sign 4.6.3 Condon Committee 4.6.4 Notable cases 4.7 Brazil 4.8 Canada 4.9 France 4.10 Italy 4.10.1 Notable cases 4.11 United Kingdom 4.11.1 Notable cases 4.12 Uruguay 4.13 Astronomer reports 5 Claims of increase in reports 6 Identification of UFOs 7 Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel 8 Extraterrestrial hypothesis 9 Associated claims 10 Ufology 10.1 Researchers 10.2 Sightings 10.3 Organizations 10.4 Categorization 10.5 Scientific skepticism 11 Conspiracy theories 12 Famous hoaxes 13 In popular culture 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Bibliography 17.1 General 17.2 History 17.3 Psychology 17.4 Technology 17.5 Skepticism 18 External links Terminology The term "UFO" (or "UFOB") was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF) to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was initially restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects" (see Air Force Regulation 200-2). During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were often referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs". The term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but later in popular use. UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, and, more recently, in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons.[1][2] Nevertheless, various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit (e.g., 1951 Flying Saucer Working Party, 1953 CIA Robertson Panel, USAF Project Blue Book, Condon Committee). The Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO as "An unidentified flying object; a 'flying saucer'." The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe.[3] The acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book, then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. He wrote, "Obviously the term 'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO (pronounced Yoo-foe) for short."[4] Other phrases that were used officially and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", and "unidentifiable object".[5][6][7] The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947. On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold timed the sighting and estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph (1,931 km/h). At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs".[8][9] In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft.[3] and because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" (UAP) or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP).[10] "Anomalous aerial vehicle" (AAV) or "unidentified aerial system" (UAS) are also sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.[11] Studies Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even being hoaxes.[note 1] Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, and therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are simply other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Almost no scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals.[12] There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation.[20][21] The void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) in the mid-20th century and, more recently, the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON)[22] and the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS).[23] The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects.[24] UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture,[25] and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology.[12] Early history Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily seen with the naked eye, planetary conjunctions, or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. An example is Halley's Comet, which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 BC and possibly as early as 467 BC. Such sightings throughout history often were treated as supernatural portents, angels, or other religious omens. Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports[26] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images.[27] On April 14, 1561, residents of Nuremberg described the appearance of a large black triangular object. According to witnesses, there were also hundreds of spheres, cylinders and other odd-shaped objects that moved erratically overhead.[28] On January 25, 1878, the Denison Daily News printed an article in which John Martin, a local farmer, had reported seeing a large, dark, circular object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed." Martin, according to the newspaper account, said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer, the first known use of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO.[29] In April 1897, thousands of people reported seeing "airships" in various parts of the United States. Many signed affidavits. Scores of people even reported talking to the pilots. Thomas Edison was asked his opinion, and said, "You can take it from me that it is a pure fake."[30][31] On February 28, 1904, there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles (483 km) west of San Francisco, reported by Lieutenant Frank Schofield, later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Schofield wrote of three bright red egg-shaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer, then changed course and "soared" above the clouds, departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. The largest had an apparent size of about six Suns, he said.[32][33] The three earliest known pilot UFO sightings, of 1,305 similar sightings catalogued by NARCAP, took place in 1916 and 1926. On January 31, 1916, a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights, resembling lighted windows on a railway carriage, that rose and disappeared. In January 1926 a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita, Kansas, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. In late September 1926 an airmail pilot over Nevada said he had been forced to land by a huge, wingless, cylindrical object.[34] On August 5, 1926, while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region, Russian explorer Nicholas Roerich reported, members of his expedition saw "something big and shiny reflecting the sun, like a huge oval moving at great speed. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface, one side of which was brilliant from the sun."[35] Another description by Roerich was of a "shiny body flying from north to south. Field glasses are at hand. It is a huge body. One side glows in the sun. It is oval in shape. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest."[36] In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II, "foo fighters" (metallic spheres, balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. Elmo's fire, the planet Venus, hallucinations from oxygen deprivation, or German secret weapons.[37][38] In 1946, more than 2,000 reports were collected, primarily by the Swedish military, of unidentified aerial objects over the Scandinavian nations, along with isolated reports from France, Portugal, Italy and Greece. The objects were referred to as "Russian hail" and later as "ghost rockets" because it was thought that the mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2 rockets. Although most were thought to be such natural phenomena as meteors, more than 200 were tracked on radar by the Swedish military and deemed to be "real physical objects." In a 1948 top secret document, Swedish authorities advised the USAF Europe that some of their investigators believed these craft to be extraterrestrial in origin.[39] Investigations UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that varied widely in scope and scientific rigor. Governments or independent academics in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, Peru, France, Belgium, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, Spain, and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947), Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969, the secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951), the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14[40] by the Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Brazilian Air Force's 1977 Operação Prato (Operation Saucer). France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) since 1977; the government of Uruguay has had a similar investigation since 1989. Project Sign Main article: Project Sign Project Sign in 1948 produced a highly classified finding (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation. A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed that the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. (For document, see Ghost rockets.) In 1954 German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed that an internal West German government investigation, which he headed, had arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion, but this study was never made public. Project Grudge Main article: Project Grudge Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge, the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951, placing Ruppelt in charge. Blue Book closed down in 1970, using the Condon Committee's negative conclusion as a rationale, thus ending official Air Force UFO investigations. However, a 1969 USAF document, known as the Bolender memo, along with later government documents, revealed that non-public U.S. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. The Bolender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security ... are not part of the Blue Book system," indicating that more serious UFO incidents already were handled outside the public Blue Book investigation. The memo then added, "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose."[note 2] In addition, in the late 1960s a chapter on UFOs in the Space Sciences course at the U.S. Air Force Academy gave serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. When word of the curriculum became public, the Air Force in 1970 issued a statement to the effect that the book was outdated and that cadets instead were being informed of the Condon Report's negative conclusion.[41] USAF Regulation 200-2 Air Force Regulation 200-2,[42] issued in 1953 and 1954, defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved." The regulation went on to say that "it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object," but added: "For those objects which are not explainable, only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release, due to many unknowns involved."[42] Project Blue Book Main article: Project Blue Book Allen Hynek (left) and Jacques Vallée J. Allen Hynek, a trained astronomer who served as a scientific advisor for Project Blue Book, was initially skeptical of UFO reports, but eventually came to the conclusion that many of them could not be satisfactorily explained and was highly critical of what he described as "the cavalier disregard by Project Blue Book of the principles of scientific investigation."[43] Leaving government work, he founded the privately funded CUFOS, to whose work he devoted the rest of his life. Other private groups studying the phenomenon include the MUFON, a grass roots organization whose investigator's handbooks go into great detail on the documentation of alleged UFO sightings. Like Hynek, Jacques Vallée, a scientist and prominent UFO researcher, has pointed to what he believes is the scientific deficiency of most UFO research, including government studies. He complains of the mythology and cultism often associated with the phenomenon, but alleges that several hundred professional scientists—a group both he and Hynek have termed "the invisible college"—continue to study UFOs in private.[25] Scientific studies The study of UFOs has received little support in mainstream scientific literature. Official studies ended in the U.S. in December 1969, following the statement by the government scientist Edward Condon that further study of UFOs could not be justified on grounds of scientific advancement.[15][44] The Condon Report and its conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists, of which Condon was a member. On the other hand, a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) disagreed with Condon's conclusion, noting that at least 30 percent of the cases studied remained unexplained and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study. Critics argue that all UFO evidence is anecdotal[45] and can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. Defenders of UFO research counter that knowledge of observational data, other than what is reported in the popular media, is limited in the scientific community and that further study is needed.[25][46] No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real, physical objects, extraterrestrial in origin, or of concern to national defense. These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years, such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party, Project Condign, the U.S. CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel, the U.S. military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951, and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14). Some public government reports have acknowledged the possibility of physical reality of UFOs, but have stopped short of proposing extraterrestrial origins, though not dismissing the possibility entirely. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the 2009 Uruguayan Air Force study conclusion (see below). Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions, but argued that the inexplicable core cases call for continued scientific study. Examples are the Sturrock panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report. United States U.S. investigations into UFOs include: The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU), established by the U.S. Army sometime in the 1940s, and about which little is known. In 1987, British UFO researcher Timothy Good received from the Army's director of counter-intelligence a letter confirming the existence of the IPU. The letter stated that "the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished during the late 1950s and never reactivated. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK." The IPU records have never been released.[47] Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969 The secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951) Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish, UK, U.S., and Greek militaries (1946–1947) The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53) The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953) The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954) The Brookings Report (1960), commissioned by NASA The public Condon Committee (1966–1968) The private, internal RAND Corporation study (1968)[48] The private Sturrock panel (1998) The secret Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program which was funded from 2007 to 2012.[49] Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U.S. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs. These agencies include the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), FBI,[7] CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and U.S. Navy, in addition to the Air Force.[note 3] The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians, who in the U.S formed research groups such as NICAP (active 1956–1980), Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) (active 1952–1988), MUFON (active 1969–), and CUFOS (active 1973–). In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited this planet and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race."[50][51] Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye."[50][51] The response further noted that efforts, like SETI and NASA's Kepler space telescope and Mars Science Laboratory, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."[50][51] Post-1947 sightings Following the large U.S. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947, on July 9, 1947, United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) intelligence, in cooperation with the FBI,[7] began a formal investigation into selected sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized, such as Kenneth Arnold's. The USAAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether "such a phenomenon could, in fact, occur." The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon," or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled."[52] Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate, the air force investigation decided that, "This 'flying saucer' situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around."[53] A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion. It reported that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious," that there were objects in the shape of a disc, metallic in appearance, and as big as man-made aircraft. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability," general lack of noise, absence of trail, occasional formation flying, and "evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar," suggesting a controlled craft. It was therefore recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation.[note 4] Project Sign This led to the creation of the Air Force's Project Sign at the end of 1947, one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. In August 1948, Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect, but the Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it, such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. Allen Hynek and Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book.[54] Another highly classified U.S. study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 in response to orders from the National Security Council (NSC). This study concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read: the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention ... Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U.S. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles. The matter was considered so urgent that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. It also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists, now known as the Robertson Panel to analyze the problem of UFOs. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953.[55] Condon Committee Main article: Condon Committee A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF, which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968, marked the end of the U.S. government's official investigation of UFOs, though various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation.[note 5] Controversy has surrounded the Condon Report, both before and after it was released. It has been observed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists, particularly at the powerful AIAA ... [which] recommended moderate, but continuous scientific work on UFOs."[15] In an address to the AAAS, James E. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem and criticized the Condon Report and earlier studies by the USAF as scientifically deficient. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions[56] and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court."[14] J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer who worked as a USAF consultant from 1948, sharply criticized the Condon Committee Report and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for continuing to investigate UFO reports. Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book, a USAF investigation that preceded Condon's.[57] Notable cases The Roswell UFO incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents, local law enforcement officers, and the U.S. military, the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site. The Mantell UFO incident January 7, 1948 The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident. In the Kecksburg UFO incident, Pennsylvania (1965), residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area. Police officers, and possibly military personnel, were sent to investigate. The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky (1993) was based on this event, but greatly embellished the original account. The "Phoenix Lights" March 13, 1997 2006 O'Hare International Airport UFO sighting Document on sighting of a UFO occurred on December 16, 1977, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Brazil On October 31, 2008, the National Archives of Brazil began receiving from the Aeronautical Documentation and History Center part of the documentation of the Brazilian Air Force regarding the investigation of the appearance of UFOs in Brazil. Currently this collection gathers cases between 1952 and 2016.[58] Canada In Canada, the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports, sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel, Alberta, it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour UFO incident in Nova Scotia.[59] Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Storey (1952–1954), supported by the Defence Research Board. France On March 2007, the French space agency CNES published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online.[60] French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–), within CNES (French space agency), the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. About 22% of 6000 cases studied remain unexplained.[61] The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral, stating on their FAQ page that their mission is fact-finding for the scientific community, not rendering an opinion. They add they can neither prove nor disprove the Exterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH), but their Steering Committee's clear position is that they cannot discard the possibility that some fraction of the very strange 22% of unexplained cases might be due to distant and advanced civilizations.[62] Possibly their bias may be indicated by their use of the terms "PAN" (French) or "UAP" (English equivalent) for "Unidentified Aerospace Phenomenon" (whereas "UAP" as normally used by English organizations stands for "Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon", a more neutral term). In addition, the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one.[63][64][65] In 2008, Michel Scheller, president of the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (3AF), created the Sigma Commission. Its purpose was to investigate UFO phenomenon worldwide.[66] A progress report published in May 2010 stated that the central hypothesis proposed by the COMETA report is perfectly credible.[67] In December 2012, the final report of the Sigma Commission was submitted to Scheller. Following the submission of the final report, the Sigma2 Commission is to be formed with a mandate to continue the scientific investigation of UFO phenomenon.[68][69] The most notable cases of UFO sightings in France include the Valensole UFO incident in 1965, and the Trans-en-Provence Case in 1981. Italy According to some Italian ufologists, the first documented case of a UFO sighting in Italy dates back to April 11, 1933, to Varese. Documents of the time show that an alleged UFO crashed or landed near Vergiate. Following this, Benito Mussolini created a secret group to look at it, called Cabinet RS/33.[70][71] Alleged UFO sightings gradually increased since the war, peaking in 1978 and 2005. The total number of sightings since 1947 are 18,500, of which 90% are identifiable.[72] In 2000, Italian ufologist Roberto Pinotti published material regarding the so-called "Fascist UFO Files", which dealt with a flying saucer that had crashed near Milan in 1933 (some 14 years before the Roswell, New Mexico, crash), and of the subsequent investigation by a never mentioned before Cabinet RS/33, that allegedly was authorized by Benito Mussolini, and headed by the Nobel scientist Guglielmo Marconi. A spaceship was allegedly stored in the hangars of the SIAI Marchetti in Vergiate near Milan.[73] Julius Obsequens was a Roman writer who is believed to have lived in the middle of the fourth century AD. The only work associated with his name is the Liber de prodigiis (Book of Prodigies), completely extracted from an epitome, or abridgment, written by Livy; De prodigiis was constructed as an account of the wonders and portents that occurred in Rome between 249 BC-12 BC. An aspect of Obsequens' work that has inspired much interest in some circles is that references are made to things moving through the sky. These have been interpreted as reports of UFOs, but may just as well describe meteors, and, since Obsequens, probably, writes in the 4th century, that is, some 400 years after the events he describes, they hardly qualify as eye-witness accounts.[74][75] Notable cases A UFO sighting in Florence, October 28, 1954, followed by a fall of angel hair.[76] In 1973, an Alitalia airplane left Rome for Naples sighted a mysterious round object. Two Italian Air Force planes from Ciampino confirmed the sighting.[77] In the same year there was another sighting at Caselle airport near Turin.[78] In 1978, two young hikers, while walking on Monte Musinè near Turin, saw a bright light; one of them temporarily disappeared and, after a while, was found in a state of shock and with a noticeable scald on one leg. After regaining consciousness, he reported having seen an elongated vehicle and that some strangely shaped beings descended from it. Both the young hikers suffered from conjunctivitis for some time.[79] A close encounter reported in September 1978 in Torrita di Siena in the Province of Siena. A young motorist saw in front of him a bright object, two beings of small stature who wore suits and helmets, the two approached the car, and after watching it carefully went back and rose again to the UFO. A boy who lived with his family in a country house not far from there said he had seen at the same time "a kind of small reddish sun".[80] Yet in 1978, there has been also the story of Pier Fortunato Zanfretta, the best known and most controversial case of an Italian alleged alien abduction. Zanfretta said to have been kidnapped on the night of 6 December and 7 December while he was performing his job at Marzano, in the municipality of Torriglia in the Province of Genoa;[81] 52 testimonies of the case from other people were collected.[81] United Kingdom The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in June 1951, which remained secret for over 50 years. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena, optical illusions, psychological misperceptions/aberrations, or hoaxes. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken, unless and until some material evidence becomes available."[82] Eight file collections on UFO sightings, dating from 1978 to 1987, were first released on May 14, 2008, to The National Archives by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).[83] Although kept secret from the public for many years, most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to the British government and officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.[84] These files include, but are not limited to, UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London.[85] On October 20, 2008, more UFO files were released. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching London Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across.[86] A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the Ministry of Defence between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. The resulting report, titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region", was publicly released in 2006, but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities, despite thousands of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena reports. There are no SIGINT, ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP, seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region], are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin, or that they represent any hostile intent." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to ball lightning are responsible for "the majority, if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings, especially reports of black triangle UFOs.[87] On December 1, 2009, the Ministry of Defence quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the MoD on that date. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release, stating in over fifty years, no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. Furthermore, responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence." The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50,000 a year. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through The National Archives.[88] Notable cases According to records released on August 5, 2010, British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. Reports given to Churchill asserted that the incident involved a Royal Air Force (RAF) reconnaissance aircraft returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of World War II. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. The aircraft's crew were reported to have photographed the object, which they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft, before moving off.[89] According to the documents, details of the coverup emerged when a man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident and described how his grandfather, who had served with the RAF in the war, was present when Churchill and U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter.[90][91] The files come from more than 5,000 pages of UFO reports, letters and drawings from members of the public, as well as questions raised in Parliament. They are available to download from The National Archives website.[83] In the April 1957 West Freugh incident in Scotland, named after the principal military base involved, two unidentified objects flying high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform maneuvers beyond the capability of any known craft. Also significant is their alleged size, which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft. In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980, U.S. military personnel witnessed UFOs near the air base at Woodbridge, Suffolk, over a period of three nights. On one night the deputy base commander, Colonel Charles I. Halt, and other personnel followed one or more UFOs that were moving in and above the forest for several hours. Col. Halt made an audio recording while this was happening and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. After retirement from the military, he said that he had deliberately downplayed the event (officially termed 'Unexplained Lights') to avoid damaging his career. Other base personnel are said to have observed one of the UFOs, which had landed in the forest, and even gone up to and touched it. Uruguay The Uruguayan Air Force has conducted UFO investigations since 1989 and reportedly analyzed 2,100 cases of which they regard approximately 2% as lacking explanation.[92] Astronomer reports The USAF's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1%[93] of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). In 1952, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, then a consultant to Blue Book, conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). In the 1970s, astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the AIAA and American Astronomical Society (AAS). About 5% of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings. Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who admitted to six UFO sightings, including three green fireballs, supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific." Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz, who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. LaPaz reported two personal sightings, one of a green fireball, the other of an anomalous disc-like object. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft.[94] In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for CUFOS found that 24% responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?"[95] Claims of increase in reports MUFON reports that UFO sightings to their offices have increased by 67% in the previous three years as of 2011. According to MUFON international director Clifford Clift in 2011, "Over the past year, we've been averaging 500 sighting reports a month, compared to about 300 three years ago [67 percent],".[96][97] According to the annual survey of reports conducted by Canadian-based UFO research group Ufology Research, reported UFO sightings doubled in Canada between 2011 and 2012.[98][99] In 2013 the Peruvian government's Departamento de Investigación de Fenómenos Aéreos Anómalos (Anomalous Aerial Phenomena Research Department), or "DIFAA", was officially reactivated due to an increase in reported sightings. According to Colonel Julio Vucetich, head of the air force's aerospace interests division who himself claims to have seen an "anomalous aerial object", "On a personal basis, it's evident to me that we are not alone in this world or universe."[100][101] In contrast, according to the UK-based Association for the Scientific Study of Anomalous Phenomena (ASSAP), reports of sightings in Britain to their office have declined by 96% since 1988.[102] Identification of UFOs Main article: Identification studies of UFOs Fata Morgana, a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky just above the horizon, may be responsible for some UFO sightings. (Here, the shape floating above the horizon is the reflected image of a boat.) Fata Morgana can also distort the appearance of distant objects, sometimes making them unrecognizable[103] Lenticular clouds have in some cases been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape Studies show that after careful investigation, the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena. The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are: Astronomical objects (bright stars, planets, meteors, re-entering man-made spacecraft, artificial satellites, and the Moon) Aircraft (aerial advertising and other aircraft, missile launches) Balloons (toy balloons, weather balloons, large research balloons) Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds, unusual clouds, kites, flares) Light phenomena mirages, Fata Morgana, ball lightning, moon dogs, searchlights and other ground lights, etc. Hoaxes A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the USAF included these categories as well as a "psychological" one. An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found, as did other investigations, that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception.[104] Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel Since 2001 there have been calls for greater openness on the part of the government by various persons. In May 2001, a press conference was held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., by an organization called the Disclosure Project, featuring twenty persons including retired Air Force and FAA personnel, intelligence officers and an air traffic controller.[105][106][107][108][109][110][111] They all gave a brief account of what they knew or had witnessed, and stated that they would be willing to testify to what they had said under oath to a Congressional committee. According to a 2002 report in the Oregon Daily Emerald, Disclosure Project founder Steven M. Greer has gathered 120 hours of testimony from various government officials on the topic of UFOs, including astronaut Gordon Cooper and a Brigadier General.[112] In 2007, former Arizona governor Fife Symington came forward and belatedly claimed that he had seen "a massive, delta-shaped craft silently navigate over Squaw Peak, a mountain range in Phoenix, Arizona" in 1997.[113] On September 27, 2010, a group of six former USAF officers and one former enlisted Air Force man held a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., on the theme "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Have Been Compromised by Unidentified Aerial Objects."[114] They told how they had witnessed UFOs hovering near missile sites and even disarming the missiles. From April 29 to May 3, 2013, the Paradigm Research Group held the "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure" at the National Press Club. The group paid former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel and former Representatives Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, Roscoe Bartlett, Merrill Cook, Darlene Hooley, and Lynn Woolsey $20,000 each to hear testimony from a panel of researchers which included witnesses from military, agency, and political backgrounds.[115][116] Apollo 14 astronaut Dr Edgar Mitchell claimed that he knew of senior government employees who had been involved in "close encounters" and because of this he has no doubt that aliens have visited Earth.[117] Extraterrestrial hypothesis Main article: Extraterrestrial hypothesis While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft;[118] however, the term ETV (ExtraTerrestrial Vehicle) is sometimes used to separate this explanation of UFOs from totally earthbound explanations.[119] Associated claims Besides anecdotal visual sightings, reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence, including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book, the Condon Committee, the French GEPAN/SEPRA, and Uruguay's current Air Force study). A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock panel, with specific examples of many of the categories listed below.[120][121][122] Radar contact and tracking, sometimes from multiple sites. These have included military personnel and control tower operators, simultaneous visual sightings, and aircraft intercepts. One such example were the mass sightings of large, silent, low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium, tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence).[123] Another famous case from 1986 was the Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident over Alaska investigated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Photographic evidence, including still photos, movie film, and video. Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs, including ground impressions, burned or desiccated soil, burned and broken foliage, magnetic anomalies[specify], increased radiation levels, and metallic traces. (See, e. g. Height 611 UFO incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro, New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases.) A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest incident in England. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN, then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots. Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis, skin burns and rashes, corneal burns, and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning, such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. Animal/cattle mutilation cases, that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth, germination effects on seeds, and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran, recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents, was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs.[124] Apparent remote radiation detection, some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, also reported by Project Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt in his book. Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves, such as 1957, Ubatuba, Brazil, magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. The 1964 Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces, analyzed by NASA.[125][126] A more recent example involves a tear drop-shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in a television episode of UFO Hunters.[127] Angel hair and angel grass, possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff.[citation needed] Ufology Main article: Ufology Photograph of "an unusual atmospheric occurrence observed over Sri Lanka", forwarded to the UK Ministry of Defence by RAF Fylingdales, 2004 Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence. Researchers Main article: List of ufologists Sightings Main article: List of reported UFO sightings Organizations Main article: List of UFO organizations Categorization This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. Typical categories include: Saucer, toy-top, or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion. Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern, usually reported at night. Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way, but are very different phenomena). Other: chevrons, (equilateral) triangles, crescent, boomerangs, spheres (usually reported to be shining, glowing at night), domes, diamonds, shapeless black masses, eggs, pyramids and cylinders, classic "lights." Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system, created by J. Allen Hynek, and the Vallée system, created by Jacques Vallée.[citation needed] Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance, subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his 1977 UFO movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind). Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types, each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type. Scientific skepticism A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analysis of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI). One example is the response to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia, which the government and the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) described as "man-made". Thomas Djamaluddin, research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at LAPAN stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. Scientists have put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience."[128] Conspiracy theories Main article: Conspiracy theory See also: UFO conspiracy theory, Steven M. Greer, Men in Black, and Brookings Report UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally "covering up" the existence of aliens by removing physical evidence of their presence, or even collaborating with extraterrestrial beings. There are many versions of this story; some are exclusive, while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories. In the U.S., an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80% of Americans believed the U.S. government was withholding such information.[129][130] Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell, Senator Barry Goldwater, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director), Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head), the 1999 French COMETA study by various French generals and aerospace experts, and Yves Sillard (former director of CNES, new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN).[60] It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact (see also ancient astronauts). Famous hoaxes Main article: List of UFO-related hoaxes The Maury Island incident George Adamski, over the space of two decades, made various claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets. He claimed that photographs of the far side of the Moon taken by the Soviet lunar probe Luna 3 in 1959 were fake, and that there were cities, trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the Moon. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham. Ed Walters, a building contractor, in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. These sightings became famous, and are collectively referred to as the Gulf Breeze UFO incident. Three years later, in 1990, after the Walters family had moved, the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. Most investigators, like the forensic photo expert William G. Hyzer,[131] now consider the sightings to be a hoax. In popular culture A UFO Monument at Tenjo, Colombia. Main article: UFOs in fiction UFOs have constituted a widespread international cultural phenomenon since the 1950s. Gallup Polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. In 1973, a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs, whereas only 92 percent had heard of U.S. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House.[132][133] A 1996 Gallup Poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the U.S. government was covering up information regarding UFOs. A 2002 Roper Poll for the Sci-Fi Channel found similar results, but with more people believing that UFOs are extraterrestrial craft. In that latest poll, 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. Again, about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life.[134][135] Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction, for example the United Planets Cruiser C57D in Forbidden Planet (1956), the Jupiter 2 in Lost in Space, and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek, and many others. UFOs and extraterrestrials have been featured in many movies. See also Declassification of UFO documents Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting Kosmopoisk List of alleged aircraft–UFO incidents and near misses Majestic 12 Mystery airship Psychosocial hypothesis UFO religion Ufology Unidentified submerged object or USO Notes For example, the USAF's Project Blue Book concluded that less than 2 % of reported UFOs were "psychological" or hoaxes; Allan Hendry's study for CUFOS had less than 1 %. For example, current USAF general reporting procedures are in Air Force Instruction (AFI)10-206. Section 5.7.3 (p. 64) lists sightings of "unidentified flying objects" and "aircraft of unconventional design" as separate categories from potentially hostile but conventional, unidentified aircraft, missiles, surface vessels, or submarines. Additionally, "unidentified objects" detected by missile warning systems, creating a potential risk of nuclear war, are covered by Rule 5E (p.35). Many of these documents are now online at the FOIA websites of these agencies such as the "FBI FOIA site". Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2007. , as well as private websites such as The Black Vault, which has an archive of several thousand U.S. government UFO-related documents from the USAF, Army, CIA, DIA, DOD, and NSA. The so-called Twining memo of Sept. 23, 1947, by future USAF Chief of Staff, General Nathan Twining, specifically recommended intelligence cooperation with the Army, Navy, Atomic Energy Commission, the Defense Department's Joint Research and Development Board, Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), Project RAND, and the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project. See, e.g., the 1976 Tehran UFO incident where a Defense Intelligence Agency report on the event had a distribution list that included the White House, Secretary of State, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Agency (NSA), and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Several thousand UFO-related pages of more recent vintage from the CIA, NSA, DIA, and other agencies have also been released and can be viewed online.[1] References Blumenthal, Ralph (April 24, 2017). "People Are Seeing U.F.O.s Everywhere, and This Book Proves It". New York Times. 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Solas Boncompagni (Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, 1992) Pirro, Deirdre (June 17, 2010). "Unexpected fans". The Florentine (125/2010). Florence: The Florentine Group. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Innocenti, Stefano. "Gli UFO nel Lazio". UFO.it (in Italian). Cermenate: Maurizio Verga. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Fiorino, Paolo. "Caselle, 1973". UFO.it (in Italian). Cermenate: Maurizio Verga. Retrieved 2013-05-16. Nattero, Rosalba (2011-06-14). "Il Monte Musiné tra storia, tradizione, UFO e viaggi nel tempo". Shan Newspaper. Retrieved 2014-02-03. Viberti 2010 Francesco Castagna: Il caso Zanfretta[incomplete short citation] "Unidentified Flying Objects" (PDF). The Black Vault. Northridge, CA: John Greenewald. June 1951. DSI/JTIC Report No. 7. Retrieved 2013-09-16. "UFO files". Kew: The National Archives. Retrieved 2013-09-10. "Files released on UFO sightings". BBC News. London: BBC. May 14, 2008. Retrieved 2013-05-16. "The truth is out there: Britons 'spotted' UFOs, records say". London. AFP. May 13, 2008. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2013. "Airliner had near miss with UFO". BBC News. London: BBC. October 20, 2008. Retrieved 2013-05-16. Defence Intelligence Staff (December 2000). "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region" (PDF). Kew: The National Archives. p. 2. 55/2/00. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2013-09-10. See also The National Archives site: "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) in the UK Air Defence Region" for archived documents. Dearing, Stephanie (December 5, 2009). "Cost-cutting causes British gov't to shut down UFO investigations". Digital Journal. Toronto. Retrieved 2013-05-16. "Churchill 'banned UFO report to avoid mass panic'". London. AFP. August 5, 2010. Retrieved 2013-05-16. "Churchill Ordered UFO Coverup, Documents Suggest". FoxNews.com. New York: Fox Entertainment Group. August 5, 2010. Retrieved 2013-07-13. "Churchill ordered UFO cover-up, National Archives show". BBC News. London: BBC. August 5, 2010. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Isgleas, Daniel (June 7, 2009). "Hay aún 40 casos de ovnis sin explicación". El País (in Spanish). Montevideo: Teledoce. Retrieved 2013-09-10. Sparks, Brad, ed. (October 2, 2009). "Comprehensive Catalog of 1,600 Project BLUE BOOK UFO Unknowns". CUFOS.org. Chicago: Center for UFO Studies. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Hynek 1972, p. 52 Herb, Gert; Hynek, J. Allen (May 2006). "The Amateur Astronomer and the UFO Phenomena". International UFO Reporter. Reprint. Chicago: J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies. 30 (3): 14–16. "http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/26/ufos-pilots-history-channel_n_935847.html" "http://www.nbcnews.com/id/44555210/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/so-whats-big-increase-ufo-reports/#.UwmAwvldWqg "https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2013/06/02/ufo_sightings_have_doubled_in_canada_are_there_aliens_among_us.html" "http://survey.canadianuforeport.com/ "https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/27/peru-ufo-investigations-office-reopening" "http://www.dinae.fap.mil.pe/ Copping, Jasper (November 4, 2012). "UFO enthusiasts admit the truth may not be out there after all". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 2013-11-21. Sturrock, et al. 1998, Appendix 4: "Electromagnetic-Wave Ducting" by V. R. Eshleman Hendry 1979 "2001 National Press Club Event" on YouTube Duin, Julia (May 11, 2001). "Government is covering up UFO evidence, group says". The Washington Times. Washington, D.C.: News World Communications. Retrieved 2013-09-11. Spavin, Vicky (May 9, 2001). "They're Here; UFO Watchers to Reveal Proof That Aliens Have Visited Earth". The Daily Record. Glasgow: Trinity Mirror. Retrieved 2013-03-10. Raymer, Katelynn; Ruppe, David (May 10, 2001). "Group Calls for Disclosure of UFO Info". ABC News. Retrieved 2013-03-11. Watson, Rob (May 10, 2001). "UFO spotters slam 'US cover-up'". BBC News. London: BBC. Retrieved 2013-09-11. Kehnemui, Sharon (May 10, 2001). "Men in Suits See Aliens as Part of Solution, Not Problem". FoxNews.com. New York: Fox Entertainment Group. Retrieved 2007-05-10. McCullagh, Declan (May 10, 2001). "Ooo-WEE-ooo Fans Come to D.C." Wired News. Waltham, MA: Lycos. Retrieved 2007-05-10. Schmidt, Brad (April 25, 2002). "Alien theorist offers proof of government coverup". Oregon Daily Emerald. Eugene, OR. Retrieved 2012-12-12. Symington, Fife (November 9, 2007). "Symington: I saw a UFO in the Arizona sky". CNN. Atlanta, GA: Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved 2013-11-25. Salas, Robert; Hastings, Robert (September 15, 2010). "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Have Been Compromised by Unidentified Aerial Objects" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: PR Newswire. Retrieved 2013-09-11. "National Press Club: UFOs Tampering with Nukes - Part 1/7" on YouTube Schultz, Marisa (April 29, 2013). "Ex-Rep. Kilpatrick 'waiting to hear' evidence of space aliens". The Detroit News. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on 2013-05-31. Retrieved 2013-09-11. "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure". Citizen Hearing on Disclosure. Bethesda, MD: Paradigm Research Group. Retrieved 2013-09-11. Mitchell, Edgar (2008), p262 Haines 1979, Chapter: "The Zeitgeist of the UFO Phenomenon" by Armando Simón Giere, Ronald N.; Bickle, John; Mauldin, Robert F. (2006), Understanding Scientific Reasoning (5th ed.), Wadsworth Publishing, p. 99, ISBN 0-15-506326-X, LCCN 2005922853, OCLC 61369793 "Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports - Sturrock Panel - Abstract, Summary and Introduction". Seattle, WA: ufoevidence.org. Retrieved 2013-09-08. Sturrock, et al. 1998 "Sturrock Panel". Seattle, WA: ufoevidence.org. Retrieved 2013-09-08. Other links to Sturrock panel. Van Utrecht, Wim. "Triangles over Belgium". Caelestia. Caelestia.be. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Fawcett & Greenwood, 81–89; Good 1988, pp. 318–322, 497–502 Good 1988, pp. 371–373 Stanford 1976, pp. 112–154 "UFO Relics". UFO Hunters. Season 3. Episode 33. May 6, 2009. History. Krismantari, Ika (February 6, 2011). "Crop circles provide food for thought". The Star. Petaling Jaya: Star Publications. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2013. "Is the Government Hiding Facts On UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life?; New Roper Poll Reveals that More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Think So" (Press release). New York: Business Wire. October 15, 2002. Retrieved 2013-09-12. "Poll: U.S. hiding knowledge of aliens". CNN. Atlanta, GA: Turner Broadcasting System. June 15, 1997. Retrieved 2013-09-12. Posner, Gary P. (July 1992). "The Gulf Breeze 'UFOs'". Tampa Bay Sounding. Seminole, FL: Tampa Bay Mensa. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Jacobs 2000, Chapter: "UFOs: Lost in the Myths" by Thomas E. Bullard, p. 141 Jacobs 2000, Chapter: "UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era" by Michael D. Swords, pp. 82–121 "The Roper Poll". Ufology Resource Center. SciFi.com. September 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-07-13. Retrieved 2006-08-19. "UFO Fast Facts". MUFON.com. Cincinnati, OH: Mutual UFO Network, Inc. Archived from the original on 2008-04-30. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Bibliography General Bullard, Thomas; (2012). The Myth and Mystery of UFOs. Lawrence: University of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1729-6. Clark, Jerome (1998). The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. LCCN 97035767. OCLC 37370629. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail; highly documented. Curran, Douglas (2001) [1st edition originally published 1985; New York: Abbeville Press]. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. Foreword by Tom Wolfe (Revised ed.). New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. LCCN 00052589. OCLC 45270419. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N. America, including the so-called "contactee cults." The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals. Deardorff, J.; Haisch, B.; Maccabee, B.; Puthoff, H. E. (2005). "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation" (PDF). Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. London: British Interplanetary Society. 58: 43–50. Bibcode:2005JBIS...58...43D. ISSN 0007-084X. Retrieved 2013-09-13. Friedman, Stanton T. (2008). Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books. ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7. LCCN 2008006291. OCLC 179812690. Greer, Steven M.; (2001). Disclosure. Crozer: Crossing Point. ISBN 0-9673238-1-9. Hall, Richard H., ed. (1997) [Originally published 1964; Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP)]. The UFO Evidence (Reissue ed.). New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. LCCN 64006912. OCLC 39544334. Well-organized, exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases—a classic. Hall, Richard H., ed. (2001). UFO Evidence: Volume II, A 30-year Report. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. LCCN 00055624. OCLC 44391782. Another exhaustive case study, more recent UFO reports. Hendry, Allan (1979). The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating, Evaluating, and Reporting UFO Sightings. Foreword by J. Allen Hynek (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. LCCN 78008211. OCLC 4642190. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases. Hynek, J. Allen (1972). The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. LCCN 76183827. OCLC 341112. Hynek, J. Allen (1997) [Originally published 1977; New York: Dell Publishing Company]. The Hynek UFO Report. New foreword by Jacques Vallée. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. OCLC 3601609. Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek. Jacobs, David M., ed. (2000). UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1032-4. LCCN 00028970. OCLC 43615835. Kérizo, Alain (1997). Les OVNI identifiés: les extraterrestres dans le mystère d'iniquité (in French). Villegenon (Les Guillots, 18260): Éd. Sainte Jeanne d'Arc. ISBN 978-2-9504914-8-0. OCLC 465784973. (associated article) Keyhoe, Donald (1950). The Flying Saucers are Real. New York: Fawcett Publications. LCCN 50004886. OCLC 1674240. Retrieved 2013-09-06. Keyhoe, Donald E. (1953). Flying Saucers from Outer Space (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company. LCCN 53009588. OCLC 181368. Retrieved 2013-05-16. Latagliata, Rosamaria (2006). UFO: verità o menzogna?. Gli atlanti di Voyager (in Italian). Florence: Giunti Editore. ISBN 978-88-09-04698-6. OCLC 635701671. McCarthy, Paul E. (1975). Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. McDonald and the UFO Case Study (Thesis/dissertation) (Internet ed.). Canterbury, CT: Sign Historical Group. OCLC 663722044. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Menzel, Donald H.; Taves, Ernest H. (1977). The UFO Enigma: The Definitive Explanation of the UFO Phenomenon. Introduction by Fred L. Whipple (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-03596-9. LCCN 76016255. OCLC 2597609. Mitchell, Edgar; (2008). The Way of the Explorer. Franklin Lakes: Career Press. ISBN 978-1-56414-977-0. "Reasons to Believe (a collection of short articles by nine different authors)". New York Magazine. March 19 – April 1, 2018. pp. 25–33. Rose, Bill; Buttler, Tony (2004). Flying Saucer Aircraft. Secret Projects. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85780-233-7. OCLC 99774524. Sagan, Carl; Page, Thornton, eds. (1996) [Originally published 1972]. UFO's: A Scientific Debate (Reprint ed.). New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-0196-6. LCCN 72004572. OCLC 35840064. Scully, Frank (1950). Behind the Flying Saucers. New York: Henry Holt and Company. OCLC 1467735. Sheaffer, Robert (1981). The UFO Verdict: Examining the Evidence. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-146-0. LCCN 80084406. OCLC 7364885. Sheaffer, Robert (1998). UFO Sightings: The Evidence. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-213-7. LCCN 98006410. OCLC 38738821. Revised edition of The UFO Verdict. Stanford, Ray (1976). Socorro 'Saucer' in a Pentagon Pantry (1st ed.). Austin, TX: Blueapple Books. ISBN 0-917092-00-7. LCCN 76013768. OCLC 2524239. Sturrock, Peter A.; Holzer, T. E.; Jahn, R.; et al. (1998). "Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports: The Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the Pocantico Conference Center, Tarrytown, New York, September 29 - October 4, 1997" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration. Stanford, CA: Society for Scientific Exploration. 12 (2): 179–229. ISSN 0892-3310. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2013. Sturrock panel report on physical evidence. Sturrock, Peter A. (1999). The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52565-0. LCCN 99066643. OCLC 42645835. Vallée, Jacques (2008) [Originally published 1991; New York: Ballantine Books]. Revelations: Alien Contact and Human Deception. San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books. ISBN 978-1-933665-30-6. LCCN 91091858. OCLC 225866107. Viberti, Pier Giorgio (2010) [Originally published 1997]. Incontri ravvicinati: Avvistamenti e contatti da mondi lontani. Atlanti del sapere (in Italian). Florence: Giunti Editore. ISBN 978-88-09-75032-6. OCLC 800130536. History Clarke, David (2009). The UFO Files: The Inside Story of Real-Life Sightings. Kew: The National Archives. ISBN 978-1-905615-50-6. OCLC 316039535. Reports from the UK government files. Dolan, Richard M. (2000). UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941–1973 (1st ed.). Rochester, NY: Keyhole Publishing Company. ISBN 0-9677995-0-3. LCCN 00691087. OCLC 45546629. Dolan is a professional historian. Downes, Jonathan; Wright, Nigel (2005). The Rising of the Moon (Revised ed.). Bangor, Northern Ireland: Xiphos Books. ISBN 978-0-9544936-5-3. OCLC 70335856. Fawcett, Lawrence; Greenwood, Barry J. (1992) [Originally published 1984 as Clear Intent; Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall]. The UFO Cover-up: What the Government Won't Say. Foreword by J. Allen Hynek (First Fireside ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. LCCN 84009818. OCLC 28384401. Many UFO documents. Good, Timothy (1988). Above Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Cover-Up. Foreword by Lord Hill-Norton (1st Quill ed.). New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-09202-0. LCCN 88208434. OCLC 707516815. Many UFO documents. Good, Timothy (1997) [Originally published 1996]. Beyond Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Security Threat. Foreword by Lord Hill-Norton (Fully revised and updated ed.). London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-34928-7. OCLC 38490850. Good, Timothy (2007). Need to Know: UFOs, the Military, and Intelligence. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. OCLC 180767460. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents Hall, Michael D.; Connors, Wendy A. (1998). Alfred Loedding & the Great Flying Saucer Wave of 1947 (PDF). Albuquerque, NM: White Rose Press. OCLC 41104299. Retrieved 2013-09-07. Keel, John (1996) [Originally published 1970 as UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons]. Operation Trojan Horse (PDF). Lilburn, GA: IllumiNet Press. ISBN 978-0-9626534-6-9. LCCN 96014564. OCLC 34474485. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 20, 2013. Kocher, George (November 1968). UFOs: What to Do (PDF). RAND Corporation. DRU-1571. Retrieved 2013-09-07. UFO historical review, case studies, review of hypotheses, recommendations. Maccabee, Bruce (2000). UFO FBI Connection: The Secret History of the Government's Cover-Up (1st ed.). St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 1-56718-493-6. LCCN 00028277. OCLC 43634902. Randle, Kevin D. (1997). Project Blue Book Exposed (1st ed.). New York: Marlowe & Company. ISBN 1-56924-746-3. LCCN 97072378. OCLC 37047544. Ruppelt, Edward J. (1956). The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. LCCN 56005444. OCLC 1941793. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book. Swords, Michael; Powell, Robert; et al. (2012). UFOs and Government: A Historical Inquiry. San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books. ISBN 978-1-933665-58-0. OCLC 809977863. Weinstein, Dominique F. (February 2001). Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: Eighty Years of Pilot Sightings (PDF). Boulder Creek, CA: National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP). NARCAP TR-04. Retrieved 2013-09-06. Psychology Haines, Richard F., ed. (1979). UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-1228-2. LCCN 79014878. OCLC 5008381. Jung, C G (1978) [Originally published 1958 as Ein moderner Mythus: von Dingen, die am Himmel gesehen werden]. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies. Translation by R.F.C. Hull. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01822-7. LCCN 78004325. OCLC 4762238. Simón, Armando (February 1976). "UFOs: Testing for the existence of Air Force censorship". Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior. 13 (1): 3–5. ISSN 0033-3077. Simón, Armando (1981). "A Nonreactive, Quantitative Study of Mass Behavior with Emphasis on the Cinema as Behavior Catalyst". Psychological Reports. Ammons Scientific. 48 (3): 775–785. doi:10.2466/pr0.1981.48.3.775. ISSN 0033-2941. Simón, Armando (1984). "Psychology and UFOs". Skeptical Inquirer. Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. 8: 355–367. Technology Ford, L. H.; Roman, Thomas A. (1996). "Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries". Physical Review D. 53 (10): 5496–5507. arXiv:gr-qc/9510071?Freely accessible. Bibcode:1996PhRvD..53.5496F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.53.5496. Hill, Paul R. (1995). Unconventional Flying Objects: A Scientific Analysis. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company. ISBN 1-57174-027-9. LCCN 97109204. OCLC 34075199. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer. Krasnikov, S. (2003). "The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts". Physical Review D. 67 (10): 104013. arXiv:gr-qc/0207057?Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003PhRvD..67j4013K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.67.104013. McCampbell, James M. (1976). Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects. Millbrae, CA: Celestial Arts. ISBN 0-89087-144-2. LCCN 76150644. OCLC 2655734. Retrieved 2013-09-13. McCampbell, James M. (1987). "Effects of UFOs Upon People" (PDF). In Evans, Hilary; Spencer, John. UFOs, 1947–1987: The 40-year Search for an Explanation (PDF). London: Fortean Tomes. ISBN 1-870021-02-9. LCCN 88112852. OCLC 18560737. Retrieved 2013-09-13. Rullán, Antonio F. (July 2, 2000). "Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data" (PDF) (Preliminary paper). Retrieved 2013-09-13. Sarfatti, Jack (2006). Super Cosmos: Through Struggles to the Stars. Indianapolis, IN: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4184-7662-5. LCCN 2004095148. OCLC 70962499. Stevens, Henry (2003). Hitler's Flying Saucers: A Guide to German Flying Discs of the Second World War. Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 1-931882-13-4. LCCN 2003271002. OCLC 51731940. Skepticism Plait, Philip C. (2002). "Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye". Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax". Illustrations by Tina Cash Walsh. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. LCCN 2002277382. OCLC 48885221. Ridpath, Ian. "Astronomical Causes of UFOs". Ian Ridpath. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Seeds, Michael (1995) [Originally published 1981]. Horizons: Exploring the Universe (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0-534-24889-6. LCCN 94013521. OCLC 30156735.(Appendix A) Sheaffer, Robert (2012) [Originally published 2011]. Psychic Vibrations: Skeptical Giggles from the Skeptical Inquirer (2nd ed.). Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4636-0157-7. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 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Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie statementMobile view Page semi-protected Unidentified flying object Fro just now WP:RECORDS "WP:RECORDS" redirects here. For WikiProject Record Charts, see WP:RECORD. WikiStats P cartesian graph.svg Main General info Status statistics WikiStats project WikiProject edit counters General statistics Awareness Editors Total size Size comparisons Growth Records Zipf's law comparison Breakdowns Editors by number of edits Editors by article count Time between edits Administrator actions v t e This is a page detailing various records of Wikipedia. Some of them may never be fully known, but it's worth listing the ones we know. Please fill in the gaps, and add your own records (as long as they are sensible)! Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Articles 3 Views 3.1 Cumulative views 3.2 Single-day views 4 Edits 5 Titles 5.1 Article with longest title 5.2 Article with shortest title 6 Links 7 Disambiguation pages 8 Consensus participation 9 Languages 10 Pictures 11 Deletion 12 Categories and templates 13 Numbers 14 High-use pages 15 Database reports 16 See also 17 References Beginnings See also: Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles, Wikipedia:2001 First page: HomePage created on 15 January 2001 First edit: HomePage on 15 January 2001 First named user: January 17: First known named user: User:ScottMoonen[1] First featured article: TheCanonofScripture, MathematicalGrouP, and NewZealand, tied on 23:53, January 21, 2001. However, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was first to be featured on the main page, on February 22, 2004 First Did You Know: Pencil sharpener, posted on February 22, 2004 (created by User:Raul654 on February 15, 2004) First Picture of the Day: Virgin River Narrows, Friday May 14, 2004[2] The English-language Wikipedia's first picture of the day The Virgin River Narrows in Zion National Park, located near Springdale, Utah, is a 16-mile long slot canyon along the Virgin River. Recently rated as number five out of National Geographic's Top 100 American Adventures, it is one of the most rewarding hikes in the world. Photo credit: Jon Sullivan, pdphoto.org Articles Oldest surviving edit (older edits have existed, but have since been lost because of the way UseModWiki worked): UuU (20:08 UTC, 16 January 2001) Longest article: List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation ?(867,401 bytes as of 29 March 2018) Longest article that is not a list: 2016–17 Coupe de France Preliminary Rounds ?(690,191 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest biography article: Eric Walter Elst (354,626 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Longest featured article: Barack Obama (337,024 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Shortest featured article: Scene7 (8,210 bytes as of 24 February 2018) Articles with the most references/citations: That is a list: List of Hillary Clinton presidential campaign non-political endorsements, 2016 has 2303 as of 24 February 2018 That is a biography: Joseph Stalin has 872 as of 24 February 2018 That is neither a list nor a biography: Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) has 997 as of 24 February 2018 Most references for one sentence: 172 in 21 May 2010 version of Educology. Most hatnotes for one article: 13 October 2017 version of Music recording sales certification. Longest time an article had no references: Reign. Unreferenced from 19 January 2003? to 9 April 2017. Largest article talk page including archives: Talk:Intelligent design (18.8 MB as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a main namespace talk page: Talk:Jesus (131 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace talk page: Wikipedia talk:Requests for adminship (249 as of 24 February 2018) Most archives of a non-main namespace non-talk page: Wikipedia:Administrators' noticeboard/Incidents (977 as of 24 February 2018) Most successful FA nominations: 169 by Wehwalt (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by featured article nominations) Most DYK (Did You Know?) articles: 1666 by Dr. Blofeld (see Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by number of DYKs) Views The most viewed pages of Wikipedia's initial years (2001–2007) remain unknown, though the multiyear ranking of most viewed pages gives views for top-100 pages since 2007. In addition, http://stats.grok.se/ gives statistics for specific months in the same years. Cumulative views The most visited pages are the Main Page, followed by Special:Search and Special:Random. The most visited articles (non-special pages) are Wiki, followed by Facebook and then YouTube. However, the consistent popularity of these articles is due in part to people accidentally typing these site names/URLs into a Wikipedia search box (either in the MediaWiki interface or a web browser) when intending to actually visit the sites themselves.[3] The most visited articles that are not about a website are United States, followed by Donald Trump and then Barack Obama.[4] The most visited articles that are neither about a website nor pertaining specifically to the United States are India, followed by World War II and then Michael Jackson.[5] Single-day views The most visited page on a single day is always the Main Page, averaging over 23 million views per day as of 2016, far more views than any other page. The most visited article (non-special page) on a single day is Steve Jobs, which had 7.4 million views on 6 October 2011 and 1.6 million on 7 October.[6] The previous record was Michael Jackson, which had 5.9 million views on 26 June 2009.[7] In both cases, the record views were set one day after the subjects' deaths. The most visited article on a single day that was not just after the subject's death is Donald Trump, which had 6.1 million views on November 9, 2016, the day after he was elected President of the United States.[8] Edits Most edited article:[9] in any namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Main Article namespace: List of WWE personnel (48,027 edits as of 29 March 2018; see Special:MostRevisions) in Talk namespace: Talk:Main Page (140,152 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User namespace: User:Cyde/List of candidates for speedy deletion/Subpage (868,556 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in User Talk namespace: User talk:Jimbo Wales (145,953 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia namespace: Wikipedia:Administrator intervention against vandalism (1,387,257 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Wikipedia talk: Wikipedia talk:Did you know (78,727 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in MediaWiki talk: MediaWiki talk:Spam-blacklist (17,990 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template: Template:AFC statistics (68,248 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Template talk: Template talk:Did you know (351,905 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] in Portal: Portal:Current events/Sports (41,619 edits as of 29 March 2018)[9] Article edited by the largest number of users: Article unedited for the longest time: See WP:Database reports/Forgotten articles Article that was stub for longest time: Cannot be determined, because there is no clear definition of how long the text of an article has to be for the article to stop being a stub. Most edits to one article in a single day: 7 July 2005 London bombings (2,857 edits in 24 hours; the article was receiving up to 15 edits per minute at some stages) Most edits by a user (bot): Cydebot has 5,121,263 edits as of 08:13, 16 March 2016 (UTC).[10] Most edits by a user (non-bot): Ser Amantio di Nicolao (1,583,487 edits as of March 15, 2016)[10] Most edits by an IP address: 68.39.174.238 (22,210 edits as of January 27, 2015) Largest single contributing edit (non-bot): revision 747382971 of List of named minor planets (numerical) (+2,024,726), edited by Rfassbind. Largest article at creation date: List of named minor planets (numerical), 2,024,726 bytes Titles Article with longest title See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (technical restrictions) § Title length See the sortable table below for the articles with the longest titles. Note: The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia limits the length of the titles to 255 bytes, thus some titles that would be longer than the ones in the table below are not included. For instance, the full title of When the Pawn... would be 445 bytes. Characters counting spaces Characters excluding spaces Article title 185 155 To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to take certain Federal lands located in El Dorado County, California, into trust for the benefit of the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians 182 182 Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon 180 153 Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders Longest full typed number with an article: 9223372036854775807[11] Article with shortest title A number of Wikipedia articles have single-character titles. There are 36 articles with titles of only one ASCII character in length: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z A further 123 articles have titles of a single Unicode character: À, Ã, È, Ê, Ì, Í, Î, Ï, Ò, Õ, Ú, Û, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? ,? ,?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? Links Page linked to by most other pages: Wikipedia:Sandbox Most linked article in main namespace: IP address Article with most links: Article in most categories: Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, in 286 categories as of 21 February 2018. The 162 top articles are international conventions with a category for each participant. Most categories for a non-convention article: Winston Churchill (131), Nicolae Iorga (122) and Elon Musk (122) Most external links in whole article: Perhaps List of MeSH codes (D02), 2,542 external links, all to the same site (April 25, 2014) Oldest surviving red link: Hammarön from Hammarö Municipality, May 25, 2004 to November 23, 2015 Most linked to image: Information.svg (6,639,021 pages as of 24 February 2018) (see Special:MostLinkedFiles) Disambiguation pages In May 2014 the disambiguation pages with the largest numbers of entries were:[12] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries St. Mary's Church 584 Communist Party (disambiguation) 569 Aliabad 520 The largest with diverse entries:[13] Disambiguation page Number of "May refer to" entries Saint Paul (disambiguation) 232 Star (disambiguation) 221 Saint-Pierre 218 Consensus participation 687 – WikiProject Usability/Main Page 600 – Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Default State RFC#Question 1: When a new account is created, should the preference be set to disable VE ("opt-in") or to enable VE ("opt-out")? 567 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Newyorkbrad 541 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Giano II 488 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Raul654 424 – Wikipedia:Attribution/Poll 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Deskana 403 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2006/Vote/Can't sleep, clown will eat me 383 – Wikipedia:Requests for adminship/Danny 2 358 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/Rebecca 341 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Fred Bauder 327 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections December 2007/Vote/FayssalF 326 – Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee Elections January 2006/Vote/Mindspillage See generally Wikipedia:Times that 300 or more Wikipedians supported something Languages Article in largest number of languages (apart from Main Page): excluding test wikis: Finland in 285 languages (See Special:MostInterwikis) including test wikis: Kurów in 345 languages (See Stats) Featured article on the most different language Wikipedias: Mars (19) Featured article in largest number of language Wikipedias but not English: World War II (18) Featured article on the highest percentage of different language Wikipedias: (fill in if found) Language with highest percentage of featured articles: (fill in if found) Pictures Article with most pictures: List of B8 polytopes with 2,429 images (Also User:Tuvalkin/BSiconRS with a browser-crushing 18,558) Picture in most articles: File:Information.svg (Information.svg) is used 4,776,141 times Counting only links from main-namespace articles, File:Question book-new.svg (Question book-new.svg) is used 407,468 times First picture: (fill in if found) Most edited picture: (fill in if found) Oldest picture on record: File:The Crusades (1935 film) video boxart.jpg created on 08:18, August 14, 2002. Oldest featured picture: (fill in if found) Image sizes: Largest:File:N. M. Price - Sir Walter Scott - Guy Mannering - At the Kaim of Derncleugh original scan.png at 94,693,415 bytes Smallest File:1px f8fcff.gif at 35 bytes Average size (as of February 2012): 229,065 bytes Deletion Longest undetected vandalism in article: Piateda, vandalized on 2 July 2007 and repaired on 27 April 2016, after 8 years, 9 months, 25 days. Longest undetected vandalism on a redirect page: List of albums by the Beatles, vandalized on 25 March 2007 and repaired on 13 September 2016, after 9 years, 5 months, 19 days. Longest undetected vandalism in media files: File:Burnin' Up Single Cover.JPG, vandalized on 25 September 2008 and repaired on 20 January 2015, after 6 years, 3 months, 26 days. Longest undetected copyvio: Gene Bearden, added 20 March 2004 (revision deleted), removed 10 September 2012. Total length of time undetected: 8 years, 5 months, 20 days. Longest undetected hoax article: Bine (mythology) lasted 12 years, 4 months, and 1 day. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia Most deleted (and recreated) article: Daniel Brandt – 40 times created and deleted. Article with most deletion discussions (VfD, AfD and DRV): Gay Nigger Association of America – 41 (deleted, later redone). See Wikipedia:LAME#Deletion wars. Longest deleted article: Probability derivations for making low hands in Omaha hold 'em (305 kB), which was transwikied to Wikibooks as a result of this AFD. Categories and templates First category: Category:World War II was created by User:Raul654 at 03:59 on 30 May 2004 Largest category: Category:All stub articles. (Of course, Category:Articles includes almost all articles within its subcategories.) First template: Template:Periodic table (oldest surviving – there may be older templates that have been deleted. Also, while it was created in 2002, it was originally in the mainspace and was moved to the template namespace in 2010.) Largest template: Template:Pfam2PDBsum (1.7MB, unused due to size) Largest navigation template: Maybe Template:Shakespeare's plays with 1803 wikilinks as of December 2017. It displays 33 other navigation templates but is only used in four articles.[1] Numbers 100,000th article: Hastings, New Zealand 500,000th article: Forced settlements in the Soviet Union (originally entitled "Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union") Millionth article: Jordanhill railway station 2M article: El Hormiguero 3M article: Beate Eriksen 4M article: Ezbet el-Borg 5M article: Persoonia terminalis 100,000th user: User:Wakmah Millionth user: User:Jchriscampbell See also Wikipedia:Milestone statistics High-use pages Most linked-to categories Most linked-to files Most linked-to pages Most transcluded pages Pages with the most interwikis Pages with the most revisions (article pages) Database reports Long pages (all pages on the project) Talk pages by size Most-watched pages Most-watched pages by namespace Most-watched users Pages with the most revisions Long stubs See also History of Wikipedia Wikipedia:Statistics Wikipedia:Article traffic jumps References Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles Wikipedia:Picture of the day/May 2004 Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2013-02-04/Special report Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. Wikipedia:Multiyear ranking of most viewed pages. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics". October 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-05. "Wikipedia article traffic statistics: Michael Jackson". June 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-30. "Traffic report: President-elect Trump". November 26, 2016. Wikipedia:Database reports/Pages with the most revisions Calculated using the MediaWiki API; using a URL like this one relevant part of Category:Integers, retrieved 25 November 2016. Schneider, Todd (30 May 2014). "What Is the Longest Disambiguation Page on Wikipedia?". Future Tense. Slate. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Article includes links to a Google spreadsheet of largest 1000 and a .csv file of the whole dataset used Schneider, Todd. "Top 1000 Longest Disambiguation Pages on Wikipedia". Google Docs. Retrieved 31 December 2017. 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